SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
For the fiscal year ended
For the transition period from to
Date of event requiring this shell company report
Commission file number
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
(Translation of Registrant’s Name into English)
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
P.O. Box 309,
(Address of principal executive offices)
Thompson Hine LLP
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.
|Title of each class||Trading
|Name of each exchange|
on which registered
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:Shares of Common Stock
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ ☒
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ☐ ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter periods that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large accelerated filer ☐||Accelerated Filer ☐||Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
|International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ☐||Other ☐|
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.
|Item 17 □||Item 18 □|
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers||3|
|Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable||3|
|Item 3. Key Information||3|
|Item 4. Information on the Company||36|
|Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments||60|
|Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects||60|
|Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees||85|
|Item 7. Major Stockholders and Related Party Transactions||90|
|Item 8. Financial Information||98|
|Item 9. The Offer and Listing||99|
|Item 10. Additional Information||99|
|Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risks||111|
|Item 12. Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities||112|
|Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies||112|
|Item 14. Material Modifications to the Rights of Shareholders and Use of Proceeds||112|
|Item 15. Controls and Procedures||112|
|Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert||113|
|Item 16B. Code of Ethics||113|
|Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services||113|
|Item 16D. Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees||114|
|Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers||114|
|Item 16F. Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant||114|
|Item 16G. Corporate Governance||114|
|Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosures||115|
|Item 17. Financial Statements||115|
|Item 18. Financial Statements||115|
|Item 19. Exhibits||116|
This Annual Report should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and accompanying notes included herein.
Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 20-F (this “Annual Report”) which are not historical facts (including our statements concerning plans and objectives of management for future operations or economic performance, or assumptions related thereto) are forward-looking statements. In addition, we and our representatives may from time to time make other oral or written statements which are also forward-looking statements. Such statements include, in particular, statements about our plans, strategies, business prospects, changes and trends in our business, and the markets in which we operate as described in this Annual Report. In some cases, you can identify the forward-looking statements by the use of words such as “may,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “forecast,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “propose,” “potential,” “continue” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology.
Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places and include statements with respect to, among other things:
|•||our ability to repay outstanding indebtedness, including the 2021 Notes (as defined herein) and,/or to fulfill other financial obligations, or to obtain additional financing;|
|•||our ability to maintain or develop new and existing customer relationships with major refined product importers and exporters, major crude oil companies and major commodity traders, including our ability to enter into long-term charters for our vessels;|
|•||our ability to successfully grow our business, our ability to identify and consummate desirable acquisitions, joint ventures or strategic alliances, business strategy, areas of possible expansion and our capacity to manage our expanding business;|
|•||future levels of cash flow and levels of dividends, as well as our future cash dividend policy;|
|•||our future opening and financial results, including the amount of hire and profit share that we may receive;|
|•||tanker industry trends, including charter rates and vessel values and factors affecting vessel supply and demand;|
|•||our ability to take delivery of, integrate into our fleet, and employ any secondhand vessels we may acquire or newbuildings we may order in the future and the ability of sellers and shipyards to deliver vessels on a timely basis;|
|•||the aging of our vessels and resultant increases in operation and drydocking costs;|
|•||the ability of our vessels to pass classification inspection and vetting inspections by oil majors;|
|•||significant changes in vessel performance, including increased vessel breakdowns;|
|•||the creditworthiness of our charterers and the ability of our contract counterparties to fulfill their obligations to us;|
|•||our ability to obtain replacement charters for our vessels at commercially acceptable rates or at all;|
|•||changes in the availability and costs of funding due to conditions in the bank market, capital markets and other factors;|
|•||potential liability from litigation and our vessel operations, including discharge of pollutants;|
|•||our track record, and past and future performance, in safety, environmental and regulatory matters;|
|•||global economic outlook and growth and changes in general economic and business conditions, including the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and efforts throughout the world to contain its spread;|
|•||public health threats, such as the COVID-19, influenza and other highly contagious diseases or viruses;|
|•||general domestic and international political conditions, including wars, acts of piracy and terrorism;|
|•||changes in production of or demand for oil and petroleum products, either globally or in particular regions;|
|•||increases or decreases in domestic or worldwide oil consumption;|
|•||changes in the standard of service or the ability of our technical manager to be approved as required;|
|•||increases in costs and expenses, including but not limited to: crew wages, insurance, provisions, port expenses, lube oil, bunkers, repairs, maintenance and general and administrative expenses;|
|•||the adequacy of our insurance arrangements and our ability to obtain insurance and required certifications;|
|•||the expected cost of, and our ability to comply with, governmental regulations and maritime self-regulatory organization standards, as well as standard regulations imposed by our charterers applicable to our business;|
|•||changes to the regulatory requirements applicable to the shipping and oil transportation industry, including, without limitation, stricter requirements adopted by international organizations, such as the International Maritime Organization (the “IMO”) and the European Union (sometimes referred to as the “EU”), or by individual countries or charterers and actions taken by regulatory authorities and governing such areas as safety and environmental compliance;|
|•||potential liability and costs due to environmental, safety and other incidents involving our vessels;|
|•||the effects of increasing emphasis on environmental and safety concerns by customers, governments and others, as well as changes in maritime regulations and standards;|
|•||our ability to retain key executive officers;|
|•||our ability to leverage to our advantage both Navios Tankers Management Inc. (the “Manager”) and Navios Maritime Holdings Inc. (“Navios Holdings”) relationships and reputation in the shipping industry; and|
|•||other factors detailed from time to time in our periodic reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).|
These and other forward-looking statements are made based upon management’s current plans, expectations, estimates, assumptions and beliefs concerning future events impacting us and therefore involve a number of risks and uncertainties, including those risks discussed in “Item 3. Key Information”.
The forward-looking statements, contained in this Annual Report, are based on our current expectations and beliefs concerning future developments and their potential effects on us. There can be no assurance that future developments affecting us will be those that we have anticipated.
The forward-looking statements are inherently subject to significant uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control and many of which have been, and may further be, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. We caution that forward-looking statements are not guarantees and that actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements.
We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement or statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which such statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all of these factors. Further, we cannot assess the impact of each such factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to be materially different from those contained in any forward-looking statement.
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
|A.||Selected Financial Data|
Navios Maritime Acquisition Corporation (sometimes referred to herein as “Navios Acquisition,” the “Company,” “we” or “us”) was incorporated in the Republic of the Marshall Islands on March 14, 2008 (refer to Item 4. Information on the Company).
Navios Acquisition’s selected historical financial information and operating results for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017 and 2016 is derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of Navios Acquisition. The selected consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 and the consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, and the consolidated balance sheets data as of December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, have been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements which are not included in this document and are available at www.sec.gov. The selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects”, and other financial information included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The selected consolidated financial data is a summary of, is derived from, and is qualified by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S.
generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”). The historical data included below and elsewhere in this Annual Report is not necessarily indicative of our future performance.
|Statement of Income Data|
(In thousands of U.S. dollars except per
share and vessel data)
|Time charter and voyage expenses||(17,820)||(22,690)||(31,593)||(21,919)||(4,980)|
|Direct vessel expenses||(14,119)||(10,132)||(7,656)||(4,198)||(3,567)|
|Vessel operating expenses (management fees entirely through related party transactions)||(127,611)||(107,748)||(94,019)||(94,973)||(97,866)|
|General and administrative expenses||(22,097)||(21,689)||(18,569)||(13,969)||(17,057)|
|Depreciation and amortization||(66,629)||(67,892)||(56,307)||(56,880)||(57,617)|
|(Loss)/ gain on sale of vessels and Impairment loss||(17,168)||(36,731)||25||—||11,749|
|Gain on debt repurchase||15,786||1,940||—||—||—|
|Interest expense and finance cost||(82,278)||(91,442)||(77,975)||(76,438)||(75,987)|
|Bargain purchase gain||—||—||68,951||—||—|
|Equity/ (loss) in net earnings of affiliated companies (including OTTI loss and loss on revaluation of existing interest)||—||2,948||(61,284)||(46,657)||15,499|
|Net income/ (loss)||$||27,609||$||(65,441)||$||(86,373)||$||(78,899)||$||62,878|
|Net (income)/ loss per share, basic||$||1.71||$||(4.75)||$||(8.40)||(2)||$||(7.50)||(2)||$||6.00||(2)|
|Net (income)/ loss per share, diluted||$||1.70||$||(4.75)||$||(8.40)||(2)||$||(7.50)||(2)||$||6.00||(2)|
|Balance Sheet Data (at period end)||
|Current assets, including cash||$||140,605||$||114,008||$||103,978||$||119,733||$||107,282|
|Long-term debt, including current portion, net of premium and deferred finance costs||$||1,076,587||$||1,173,117||$||1,205,837||$||1,065,369||$||1,095,938|
|Total Stockholders’ equity||$||329,857||$||313,852||$||380,352||(2)||$||462,475||(2)||$||572,931||(2)|
|Puttable common stock||$||—||$||—||$||—||$||—||$||2,500|
|Number of shares||16,559,481||15,873,391||13,280,927||(2)||10,140,527||(2)||10,038,866||(2)|
|Dividends declared/ paid||$||15,320 /19,204||$||17,070/ 12,359||$||12,213||$||31,614||$||31,682|
|Cash Flow Data|
|Net cash provided by / (used in) operating activities||$||112,616||$||29,244||$||(38,709||) (1)||$||45,968||(1)||$||92,721||(1)|
|Net cash (used in)/ provided by investing activities||$||(41,023)||$||4,027||$||79,813||$||52,378||$||43,505|
|Net cash used in financing activities||$||(74,287||)||$||(35,829||)||$||(80,953||)(1)||$||(68,546||)(1)||$||(141,213||)(1)|
|Cash dividends declared per common share||$||0.95||$||1.20||$||1.20||(2)||$||3.0||(2)||$||3.0||(2)|
|Vessels at end of period||51||46||41||36||36|
|(1)||Net cash provided by/ (used in) operating activities and net cash used in financing activities presented in this table have been revised to reflect the adoption of ASU 2016-18.|
|(2)||All issued and outstanding shares of common stock, conversion terms of preferred stock, options to purchase common stock and per share amounts contained in the financial statements, in accordance with Staff Accounting Bulletin Topic 4C, have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the reverse split, effected in November 2018, for all periods presented.|
|B.||Capitalization and indebtedness|
|C.||Reasons for the offer and use of proceeds|
The following factors should be considered carefully in evaluating whether to purchase our securities. These factors should be considered in conjunction with any other information included or incorporated by reference herein, including in conjunction with forward-looking statements made herein.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
|·||Our 2021 Notes (as defined herein) maturity and our working capital deficit raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.|
|·||We have substantial indebtedness and may incur substantial additional indebtedness, which could adversely affect our financial health and our ability to obtain financing in the future, react to changes in our business and make debt service payments.|
|·||The agreements and instruments governing our indebtedness and other obligations do or will contain restrictions, limitations and obligations that could significantly impact our ability to operate our business and adversely affect our stockholders.|
|·||Our ability to generate the significant amount of cash needed to service our other indebtedness and our ability to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness or obtain additional financing depends on many factors beyond our control.|
|·||We are exposed to volatility in the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), which can affect our profitability, earnings and cash flow.|
|·||Changes in the method of determining LIBOR, or the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate, may adversely affect interest expense related to outstanding debt.|
|·||The international nature of our operations may make the outcome of any bankruptcy proceedings difficult to predict.|
|·||We may be unable to raise funds necessary to finance the change of control repurchase offer required by the indenture governing our notes.|
We may require additional financing to acquire vessels or businesses or to exercise vessel purchase options, to finance any planned growth, and such financing may not be available.
Risks Relating to the Shipping Industry and the Operation of our Vessels
|·||The cyclical nature of the tanker industry may lead to volatility in charter rates and vessel values, which could adversely affect our future earnings.|
|·||Spot market rates for tanker vessels are highly volatile and may decrease in the future, which may materially adversely affect our earnings in the event that our vessels are chartered in the spot market.|
|·||An oversupply of tanker vessel capacity may lead to reductions in charter hire rates, vessel values and profitability.|
|·||Increasing energy self-sufficiency in the United States could lead to a decrease in imports of oil to that country, which to date has been one of the largest importers of oil worldwide.|
|·||A number of third party owners have ordered so-called modern vessels, which can offer substantial bunker savings as compared to older vessels. Increased demand for and supply of modern vessels could reduce demand for certain of our existing older vessels and expose us to lower vessel utilization and/or decreased charter rates.|
|·||A number of third party owners have ordered exhaust gas scrubbers for their vessels to comply with IMO 2020 requirements to reduce sulphur emissions from fuel burned at sea, which may offer substantial bunker savings as compared to vessels without. Increased demand for and supply of vessels fitted with scrubbers could reduce demand for certain of our existing vessels and expose us to lower vessel utilization and/or decreased charter rates.|
|·||Increased competition in technology and innovation could reduce our charter hire income and the value of our vessels.|
|·||Charter rates in the crude oil tankers sector in which we operate and in the product and chemical tanker sectors of the seaborne transportation industry have significantly declined from historically high levels in 2008 and may remain depressed or decline further in the future, which may adversely affect our earnings.|
|·||Any decrease in shipments of crude oil from the Arabian Gulf or the Atlantic basin may adversely affect our financial performance.|
|·||Delays in deliveries of second-hand vessels, our decision to cancel an order for purchase of a vessel or our inability to otherwise complete the acquisitions of additional vessels for our fleet, could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.|
|·||Delays in deliveries of any newbuilding vessels we may contract to acquire or order in the future, or our decision to cancel, or our inability to otherwise complete the acquisitions of any newbuildings, could harm our operating results and lead to the termination of any related charters.|
|·||Certain vessels in our fleet are second-hand vessels, and we may acquire more second-hand vessels in the future. The acquisition and operation of such vessels may result in increased operating costs and vessel off-hire, which could materially adversely affect our earnings.|
|·||Our growth depends on continued growth in demand for crude oil, refined petroleum products (clean and dirty) and bulk liquid chemicals and the continued demand for seaborne transportation of such cargoes.|
|·||We may be unable to make or realize expected benefits from acquisitions, and implementing our growth strategy through acquisitions may harm our business, financial condition and operating results.|
|·||Increasing growth of electric vehicles and renewable fuels could lead to a decrease in trading and the movement of crude oil and petroleum products worldwide.|
|·||Our growth depends on our ability to obtain customers, for which we face substantial competition. In the highly competitive tanker industry, we may not be able to compete for charters with new entrants or established companies with greater resources, which may adversely affect our results of operations.|
|·||If we fail to manage our planned growth properly, we may not be able to expand our fleet successfully, which may adversely affect our overall financial position.|
|·||We may face unexpected maintenance costs, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.|
|·||Our vessels may be subject to unbudgeted periods of off-hire, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.|
|·||The market values of tanker vessels have declined from historically high levels and may fluctuate significantly, which could cause us to breach covenants in our credit facilities, result in the foreclosure of certain of our vessels, limit the amount of funds that we can borrow and adversely affect our ability to purchase new vessels and our operating results. Depressed vessel values could also cause us to incur impairment charges.|
|·||Future increases in vessel operating expenses, including rising fuel prices, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.|
|·||The crude oil, product and chemical tanker sectors are subject to seasonal fluctuations in demand and, therefore, may cause volatility in our operating results.|
|·||A decrease in the level of China’s imports of crude oil or petroleum products or a decrease in oil trade globally could have a material adverse impact on our charterers’ business and, in turn, could cause a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.|
|·||The employment of our vessels could be adversely affected by an inability to clear the Oil Majors’ vetting process, and we could be in breach of our charter agreements with all of our tanker vessels.|
|·||We depend on significant customers for part of our revenue. Charterers may terminate or default on their obligations to us, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and cash flow, and breaches of the charters may be difficult to enforce.|
|·||We are subject to inherent operational risks that may not be adequately covered by our insurance. If we experience a catastrophic loss and our insurance is not adequate to cover such loss, it could lower our profitability and be detrimental to operations.|
|·||We may be subject to litigation that, if not resolved in our favor and not sufficiently insured against, could have a material adverse effect on us.|
|·||We are subject to various laws, regulations, and international conventions, particularly environmental and safety requirements, that could require significant expenditures both to maintain compliance with such requirements and to pay for any uninsured environmental liabilities including any resulting from a spill or other environmental incident, which could affect our cash flows and net income.|
|·||Climate change and government laws and regulations related to climate change could negatively impact our financial condition.|
|·||We are subject to vessel security regulations and we incur costs to comply with adopted regulations. We may be subject to costs to comply with similar regulations that may be adopted in the future in response to terrorism.|
|·||Our international activities increase the compliance risks associated with economic and trade sanctions imposed by the U.S., the EU and other jurisdictions/authorities.|
|·||We could be materially adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act, and anti-corruption laws in other applicable jurisdictions.|
|·||Increased inspection procedures and tighter import and export controls could increase costs and disrupt our business.|
|·||A failure to pass inspection by classification societies could result in our vessels becoming unemployable unless and until they pass inspection, resulting in a loss of revenues from such vessels for that period and a corresponding decrease in operating cash flows.|
|·||The operation of ocean-going vessels entails the possibility of marine disasters, including damage or destruction of a vessel due to accident, the loss of a vessel due to piracy, terrorism or political conflict, damage or destruction of cargo and similar events that are inherent operational risks of the tanker industry and may cause a loss of revenue from affected vessels and damage to our business reputation and condition, which may in turn lead to loss of business.|
|·||The smuggling of drugs or other contraband onto our vessels may lead to governmental claims against us.|
|·||Security breaches and disruptions to our information technology infrastructure could interfere with our operations and expose us to liability which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.|
|·||Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels have increased in frequency and magnitude, which could adversely affect our business.|
|·||Governments could requisition vessels of a target business during a period of war or emergency, resulting in a loss of earnings.|
|·||Disruptions in global financial markets and the resulting governmental action, political and governmental instability, terrorist attacks, regional armed conflicts, general political unrest, the emergence of a pandemic crisis, could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.|
|·||Our financial and operating performance may be adversely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. .|
|·||As international tankers companies often generate most or all of their revenues in U.S. dollars but incur a portion of their expenses in other currencies, exchange rate fluctuations could cause us to suffer exchange rate losses, thereby increasing expenses and reducing income.|
|·||Labor interruptions and problems could disrupt our business.|
|·||Our right to be indemnified against certain damages may be inadequate.|
Risks Related to Our Relationship with the Manager
|·||We are dependent on the Manager for the technical, commercial, administrative and technical management of our fleet.|
|·||Navios Holdings, Navios Maritime Partners L.P. (“Navios Partners”), and Navios Acquisition share certain officers and directors who may not be able to devote sufficient time to our affairs, which may affect our ability to conduct operations and generate revenues.|
|·||The loss of key members of our senior management team could disrupt the management of our business.|
|·||Navios Holdings, our affiliate and a greater than 5% holder of our common stock, Angeliki Frangou, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, and certain of our officers and directors collectively own a substantial interest in us, and, as a result, may influence certain actions requiring stockholder vote.|
Risks Related to Our Common Stock and Capital Structure
|·||We are incorporated in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, a country that does not have a well-developed body of corporate law, which may negatively affect the ability of public stockholders to protect their interests.|
|·||We are incorporated under the laws of the Marshall Islands and our directors and officers are non-U.S. residents, and although you may bring an original action in the courts of the Marshall Islands or obtain a judgment against us, our directors or our management based on U.S. laws in the event you believe your rights as a stockholder have been infringed, it may be difficult to enforce judgments against us, our directors or our management.|
|·||Since we are a foreign private issuer, we are not subject to certain SEC regulations that companies incorporated in the United States would be subject to.|
|·||Anti-takeover provisions in our amended and restated articles of incorporation could make it difficult for our stockholders to replace or remove our current board of directors or could have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing a merger or acquisition, which could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.|
|·||Registration rights held by our initial stockholders and others may have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.|
|·||The New York Stock Exchange may delist our securities from quotation on its exchange, which could limit your ability to trade our securities and subject us to additional trading restrictions.|
|·||U.S. tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company,” which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders.|
|·||We may have to pay tax on United States source income, which would reduce our earnings.|
|·||Actions taken by our shareholders could result in our being treated as a “controlled foreign corporation,” which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to certain U.S. holders.|
|·||Other Tax Jurisdictions|
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Our 2021 Notes maturity and our working capital deficit raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
As of December 31, 2020, Navios Acquisition’s current assets totaled $140.6 million, while current liabilities totaled $805.9 million, resulting in a negative working capital position of $665.3 million, primarily related to the classification as current of the $602.6 million of 2021 Notes (as defined herein) which mature on November 15, 2021, and balloon payments due under its credit facilities and the financial liabilities under the sale and leaseback transactions.
To date, Navios Acquisition sold three vessels, entered into agreements to sell another six vessels. In addition, Navios Acquisition entered into a secured loan agreement with a subsidiary of N Shipmanagement Acquisition Corp., an entity affiliated with Navios Acquisition’s Chairman and Chief Executive Officer.
The Company intends to fund its working capital requirements and capital commitments via cash at hand, cash flows from operations, long term borrowings, proceeds from its on-going continuous offering program and other equity offerings, and proceeds from sale of assets. Although the Company is currently attempting to refinance the outstanding amount of its 2021 Notes and has also engaged in discussions with the holders of its 2021 Notes, the successful completion of the attempts described above, including potential refinancing, sales or other action, are dependent on factors outside the Company’s control and there can be no assurance it will be successful in such attempts or that any such attempts will be consummated on terms satisfactory to us, or at all. Therefore there is substantial doubt over the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for the 12-month period from the date its consolidated financial statements were issued.
The consolidated financial statements included in this report have been prepared assuming that Navios Acquisition will continue as a going concern and, therefore do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of these uncertainties.
We have substantial indebtedness and may incur substantial additional indebtedness, which could adversely affect our financial health and our ability to obtain financing in the future, react to changes in our business and make debt service payments.
We have substantial indebtedness, and we may also increase the amount of our indebtedness in the future. The terms of our credit facilities and other instruments and agreements governing our indebtedness do not prohibit us from doing so. Our substantial indebtedness could have important consequences for our stockholders.
Because of our substantial indebtedness:
|•||our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, vessel or other acquisitions or general corporate purposes may be impaired in the future;|
|•||if new debt is added to our debt levels after vessel acquisitions, the related risks that we now face would increase and we may not be able to meet all of our debt obligations;|
|•||a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations must be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the funds available to us for other purposes, and there can be no assurance that our operations will generate sufficient cash flow to service this indebtedness;|
|•||we will be exposed to the risk of increased interest rates because our borrowings under the credit facilities will be at variable rates of interest;|
|•||It may be more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations to our lenders, resulting in possible defaults on and acceleration of such indebtedness;|
|•||we may be more vulnerable to general adverse economic and industry conditions;|
|•||we may be at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors with less debt or comparable debt at more favorable interest rates and, as a result, we may not be better positioned to withstand economic downturns;|
|•||our ability to refinance indebtedness may be limited or the associated costs may increase; and|
|•||our flexibility to adjust to changing market conditions and ability to withstand competitive pressures could be limited, or we may be prevented from carrying out capital spending that is necessary or important to our growth strategy and efforts to improve operating margins or our business.|
Highly leveraged companies are significantly more vulnerable to unanticipated downturns and setbacks, whether directly related to their business or flowing from a general economic or industry condition, and therefore are more vulnerable to a business failure or bankruptcy.
The agreements and instruments governing our indebtedness and other obligations do or will contain restrictions, limitations and obligations that could significantly impact our ability to operate our business and adversely affect our stockholders.
The agreements and instruments governing our indebtedness and other commitments we enter into impose certain operating and financial restrictions on us.
Among other restrictions, these restrictions and our other obligations and commitments may limit our ability to:
|•||incur or guarantee additional indebtedness or issue certain preferred stock;|
|•||create liens on our assets;|
|•||engage in mergers and acquisitions or sell all or substantially all of our properties or assets;|
|•||redeem or repurchase capital stock, pay dividends or make other restricted payments and investments;|
|•||make capital expenditures;|
|•||change the management of our vessels or terminate the management agreements we have relating to our vessels;|
|•||enter into long-term charter arrangements without the consent of the lender;|
|•||transfer or sell any of our vessels;|
|•||enter into certain transactions with our affiliates; and|
|•||reduce our cash available for growth and other purposes.|
Therefore, we will need to seek permission from our lenders in order to engage in some corporate and commercial actions that we believe would be in the best interest of our business, and a denial of permission may make it difficult for us to successfully execute our business strategy or effectively compete with companies that are not similarly restricted. Our lenders’ interests may be different from our interests, and we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain our lenders’ permission when needed. This may prevent us from taking actions that are in our best interest. Any future credit agreement may include similar or more restrictive restrictions.
Our credit facilities contain requirements that the value of the collateral provided pursuant to the credit facilities must equal or exceed by a certain percentage the amount of outstanding borrowings under the credit facilities and that we maintain a minimum liquidity level. In addition, our credit facilities contain additional restrictive covenants, including a minimum net worth requirement and maximum total net liabilities over net assets requirement. It is an event of default under our credit facilities if such covenants are not complied with or if Navios Holdings, Ms. Angeliki Frangou, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, and their respective affiliates cease to hold a minimum percentage of our issued stock. In addition, the indenture governing the notes also contains certain provisions obligating us in certain instances to make offers to purchase outstanding notes with the net proceeds of certain sales or other dispositions of assets or upon the occurrence of an event of loss with respect to a mortgaged vessel, as defined in the indenture. Our ability to comply with the covenants and restrictions contained in our agreements and instruments governing our indebtedness may be affected by economic, financial and industry conditions and other factors beyond our control. If we are unable to comply with these covenants and restrictions, our indebtedness could be accelerated. If we are unable to repay indebtedness, our lenders could proceed against the collateral securing that indebtedness. In any such case, we may be unable to borrow under our credit facilities and may not be able to repay the amounts due under our agreements and instruments governing our indebtedness. This could have serious consequences on our financial condition and results of operations and could cause us to become bankrupt or insolvent. Our ability to comply with these covenants in future periods will also depend substantially on the value of our assets, our charter rates, our success at keeping our costs low and our ability to successfully implement our overall business strategy. Any future credit agreement or amendment or debt instrument may contain similar or more restrictive covenants.
Our ability to generate the significant amount of cash needed to service our other indebtedness and our ability to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness or obtain additional financing depends on many factors beyond our control.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on or to refinance our obligations under, our indebtedness will depend on our financial and operating performance, which, in turn, will be subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to financial and business factors, many of which may be beyond our control.
We will use cash to pay the principal and interest on our indebtedness. These payments limit funds otherwise available for working capital, capital expenditures, vessel acquisitions and other purposes. As a result of these obligations, our current liabilities may exceed our current assets. We may need to take on additional indebtedness as we expand our fleet, which could increase our ratio of indebtedness to equity. The need to service our indebtedness may limit funds available for other purposes and our inability to service indebtedness in the future could lead to acceleration of our indebtedness and foreclosure on our owned vessels.
Our credit facilities mature on various dates through 2027, our 2021 Notes (as defined herein) mature on November 15, 2021. In addition, borrowings under certain of the credit facilities have amortization requirements prior to final maturity. In October and November 2019 Navios Acquisition repurchased a total of $12.0 million of its 2021 Notes (as defined below) from unaffiliated third parties in open market transactions for a cash consideration of $10.0 million. During the year ended December 31, 2020, Navios Acquisition repurchased $55.4 million of its ship mortgage notes for cash consideration of $39.4 million. We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance any of our indebtedness or obtain additional financing, particularly because of our anticipated high levels of indebtedness and the indebtedness incurrence restrictions imposed by the agreements governing our indebtedness, as well as prevailing market conditions.
We could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our indebtedness service and other obligations. Our credit facilities, the indenture governing our notes and any future indebtedness may restrict our ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from any such dispositions. If we do not reinvest the proceeds of asset sales in our business (in the case of asset sales of no collateral with respect to such indebtedness) or in new vessels or other related assets that are mortgaged in favor of the lenders under our credit facilities (in the case of assets sales of collateral securing), we may be required to use the proceeds to repurchase senior indebtedness. We cannot assure you we will be able to consummate any asset sales, or if we do, what the timing of the sales will be or whether the proceeds that we realize will be adequate to meet indebtedness service obligations when due.
Most of our credit facilities require that we maintain loan to collateral value ratios in order to remain in compliance with the covenants set forth therein. If the value of such collateral falls below such required level, we would be required to either prepay the loans or post additional collateral to the extent necessary to bring the value of the collateral as compared to the aggregate principal amount of the loan back to the required level. We cannot assure you that we will have the cash on hand or the financing available to prepay the loans or have any unencumbered assets available to post as additional collateral. In such case, we would be in default under such credit facility and the collateral securing such facility would be subject to foreclosure by the applicable lenders.
We are exposed to volatility in the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), which can affect our profitability, earnings and cash flow.
The loans under our credit facilities are generally advanced at a floating rate based on LIBOR, which was volatile in prior years and has been steadily increasing in recent years. LIBOR can affect the amount of interest payable on our debt, which, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our earnings and cash flow.
Our financial condition could be materially adversely affected as we have not entered into interest rate hedging arrangements to hedge our exposure to the interest rates applicable to our credit facilities and may not enter into interest rate hedging arrangements for these or any other financing arrangements we may enter into in the future, including those we may enter into to finance a portion of the amounts payable with respect to newbuildings or acquisitions.
We may enter into derivative contracts to hedge our overall exposure to interest rate risk. Entering into swaps and other derivatives transactions is inherently risky and presents possibilities for incurring significant expenses. The derivatives strategies that we may employ may not be successful or effective, and we could, as a result, incur substantial additional interest and breakage costs.
Changes in the method of determining LIBOR, or the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate, may adversely affect interest expense related to outstanding debt.
Our outstanding debt bears interest rates in relation to LIBOR. On July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR to the administrator of LIBOR after 2021 (“FCA Announcement”). The FCA Announcement indicated that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis is not guaranteed after 2021. It is unclear if at that time new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist after 2021. On November 30, 2020, the administrator of LIBOR, the ICE Benchmark Administration (“IBA”), announced that it would consult on ceasing to determine one-week and two-month U.S. dollar LIBOR with effect from the December 31, 2021 deadline, but ceasing to determine the remaining U.S. dollar LIBOR tenors on June 30, 2023. This announcement coincided with an announcement by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association that the IBA announcement was not a triggering event which would set the spread to be used in its derivative contracts as part of the risk-free rate determination process.
The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions, has proposed replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements that utilize LIBOR as a factor in determining the interest rate. In addition, lenders have recently insisted on provisions that entitle the lenders, in their discretion, to replace published LIBOR as the base for the interest calculation with their cost-of-funds rate. Such provisions could significantly increase our lending costs, which would have an adverse effect on our profitability, earnings and cash flow.
Uncertainty surrounding a phase-out of LIBOR may adversely affect the trading market for LIBOR-based agreements, which could negatively affect our operating results and financial condition as well as on our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our shareholders. We are continuing to evaluate the risks resulting from a termination of LIBOR and our credit facilities generally have fallback provisions in the event of the unavailability of LIBOR, but those fallback provisions and related successor benchmarks may create additional risks and uncertainties.
The international nature of our operations may make the outcome of any bankruptcy proceedings difficult to predict.
We are incorporated under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and our subsidiaries are also incorporated under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Cayman Islands, Hong Kong and certain other countries other than the United States, and we conduct operations in countries around the world. Our business will be operated primarily from our offices in the Cayman Islands. Consequently, in the event of any bankruptcy, insolvency or similar proceedings involving us or one of our subsidiaries, bankruptcy laws other than those of the United States could apply. We have limited operations in the United States. If we become a debtor under the United States bankruptcy laws, bankruptcy courts in the United States may seek to assert jurisdiction over all of our assets, wherever located, including property situated in other countries. There can be no assurance, however, that we would become a debtor in the United States or that a United States bankruptcy court would be entitled to, or accept, jurisdiction over such bankruptcy case or that courts in other countries that have jurisdiction over us and our operations would recognize a United States bankruptcy court’s jurisdiction if any other bankruptcy court would determine it had jurisdiction.
We may be unable to raise funds necessary to finance the change of control repurchase offer required by the indenture governing our notes.
If we experience specified changes of control, we would be required to make an offer to repurchase all of our outstanding notes (unless otherwise redeemed) at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount thereof plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to the repurchase date. The occurrence of specified events that could constitute a change of control will constitute a default under our credit facilities. There are also change of control events that would constitute a default under the credit facilities that would not be a change of control under the indenture. In addition, our credit facilities prohibit the purchase of notes by us in the event of a change of control, unless and until such time as the indebtedness under our credit facilities is repaid in full. As a result, following a change of control event, we would not be able to repurchase notes unless we first repay all indebtedness outstanding under our credit facilities and any of our other indebtedness that contains similar provisions; or obtain a waiver from the holders of such indebtedness to permit us to repurchase the notes. We may be unable to repay all of that indebtedness or obtain a waiver of that type. Any requirement to offer to repurchase outstanding notes may therefore require us to refinance our other outstanding debt, which we may not be able to do on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In addition, our failure to purchase the notes after a change of control in accordance with the terms of the indenture would constitute an event of default under the indenture, which in turn would result in a default under our credit facilities.
Our inability to repay the indebtedness under our credit facilities will constitute an event of default under the indenture governing our notes, which could have materially adverse consequences to us. In the event of a change of control, we cannot assure you that we would have sufficient assets to satisfy all of our obligations under our credit facilities and the notes. Our future indebtedness may also require such indebtedness to be repurchased upon a change of control.
We may require additional financing to acquire vessels or businesses or to exercise vessel purchase options, to finance any planned growth, and such financing may not be available.
In the future, we may be required to make substantial cash outlays to exercise options or to acquire vessels or business and will need additional financing to cover all or a portion of the purchase prices. We may seek to cover the cost of such items with new debt collateralized by the vessels to be acquired, if applicable, but there can be no assurance that we will generate sufficient cash or that debt financing will be available. Moreover, the covenants in our credit facilities, the indenture or other debt may make it more difficult to obtain such financing by imposing restrictions on what we can offer as collateral.
Risks Relating to the Shipping Industry and the Operation of our Vessels
The cyclical nature of the tanker industry may lead to volatility in charter rates and vessel values, which could adversely affect our future earnings.
Oil has been one of the world’s primary energy sources for a number of decades. The global economic growth of previous years had a significant impact on the demand for oil and subsequently on the oil trade and the demand for shipping oil and oil products. However, the past several years were marked by a major economic slowdown, the rise and continued expansion of shale oil production in the U.S. and extreme volatility that has had, and continues to have, a significant impact on world trade, including the oil trade. Global economic conditions, while somewhat more stable than in the immediate aftermath of the financial crisis, remain uncertain with respect to long-term economic growth. In particular, the uncertainty surrounding the future of the Eurozone, the economic prospects of the United States (sometimes referred to as the “U.S.”), the future economic growth of China, Brazil, Russia, India and other emerging markets and changing oil production and consumption patterns due to efficiencies, environmental concerns, new technologies and government policy changes are all expected to affect demand for product and crude tankers going-forward. Charter rates for both crude and product tankers rose at the end of 2019, due to the global economic expansion, declines in inventories of crude and products and the implementation of the International Maritime Organization’s low sulphur bunkering requirement starting on January 1, 2020 (IMO 2020). The Baltic Dirty Tanker Index (“BDTI”) for crude tanker earnings hit a ten year high in October 2019 and remained elevated through April 2020. The Baltic Clean Tanker Index (“BCTI”) for product tanker earnings hit an all time high in April 2020 as COVID-19 lockdowns caused oil prices to plummet and demand for storage for unneeded crude and products to soar in April 2020. However, both the BDTI and BCTI declined since then because of reduced demand due to the pandemic. If oil demand grows in the future, it is expected to come primarily from emerging markets which have been historically volatile, such as China and India, and a slowdown in these countries’ economies may severely affect global oil demand growth, and may result in protracted, reduced consumption of oil products and a decreased demand for our vessels and lower charter rates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to make cash distributions. Should the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) significantly reduce oil production or should there be significant declines in non-OPEC oil production, that may result in a protracted period of reduced oil shipments and a decreased demand for our vessels and lower charter rates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to make cash distributions.
Historically, the crude oil and product markets have been volatile as a result of the many conditions and events that can affect the price, demand, production and transport of oil, including competition from alternative energy sources. Decreased demand for oil transportation may have a material adverse effect on our revenues, cash flows and profitability. The factors affecting the supply and demand for tankers are outside of our control, and the nature, timing and degree of changes in industry conditions are unpredictable. The past global financial crisis, the continuing U.S. shale production expansion and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic response has intensified this unpredictability.
The factors that influence demand for tanker capacity include:
|•||demand for and supply of liquid cargoes, including petroleum and petroleum products and any differences in supply and demand between regions;|
|•||developments in international trade;|
|•||waiting days in ports;|
|•||changes in oil production and refining capacity and regional availability of petroleum refining capacity;|
|•||environmental and other legal and regulatory developments, including the adoption of any limits on CO2 emissions or the consumption of carbon-based fuels due to climate change agreements or protocols;|
|•||global and regional economic conditions, including the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and efforts throughout the world to contain its spread;|
|•||the distance chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products are to be moved by sea;|
|•||changes in seaborne and other transportation patterns, including changes in distances over which cargo is transported due to geographic changes in where oil is produced, refined and used;|
|•||competition from alternative sources of energy;|
|•||armed conflicts and terrorist activities;|
|•||natural or man-made disasters that affect the ability of our vessels to use certain waterways;|
|•||political developments, including changes to trade policies and or trade wars, including the provision or removal of economic stimulus measures meant to counteract the effects of sudden market disruptions due to financial, economic or health crises;|
|•||embargoes and strikes;|
|•||global or local health related issues including disease outbreaks or pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic;|
|•||domestic and foreign tax policies.|
The factors that influence the supply of tanker capacity include:
|•||the number of newbuilding deliveries;|
|•||the scrapping rate of older vessels;|
|•||port or canal congestion, closure or blockage;|
|•||the number of vessels that are used for storage or as floating storage offloading service vessels;|
|•||the conversion of tankers to other uses, including conversion of vessels from transporting oil and oil products to carrying drybulk cargo and the reverse conversion;|
|•||availability of financing for new or second hand tankers;|
|•||the phasing out of single-hull tankers due to legislation and environmental concerns;|
|•||the price of steel;|
|•||the number of vessels that are out of service;|
|•||national or international regulations that may effectively cause reductions in the carrying capacity of vessels or early obsolescence of tonnage; and|
|•||environmental concerns and regulations, including ballast water management, low sulphur fuel consumption regulations and reductions in CO2 emissions.|
Furthermore, the extension of refinery capacity in China, India and particularly the Middle East through 2020 is expected to exceed the immediate consumption in these areas, and an increase in exports of refined oil products is expected as a result. Changes in product trading patterns due to the implementation of the IMO 2020 sulphur reduction rules and closure of refineries due to the pandemic should increase trade in refined oil products.
Historically, the tanker markets have been volatile as a result of the many conditions and factors that can affect the price, supply and demand for tanker capacity. The consequences any future global economic crisis may further reduce demand for transportation of oil over long distances and supply of tankers that carry oil, which may materially affect our future revenues, profitability and cash flows. In addition, public health threats, such as the coronavirus, influenza and other highly communicable diseases or viruses, outbreaks of which have from time to time occurred in various parts of the world in which we operate, including China, could adversely impact our operations, and the operations of our customers.
We believe that the current order book for tanker vessels represents a significant percentage of the existing fleet; however the percentage of the total tanker fleet on order as a percent of the total fleet declined from 20% at the start of 2016 to 8% at the beginning of April 2021. An over-supply of tanker capacity may result in a reduction of charter hire rates. If a reduction in charter rates occurs, we may only be able to charter our vessels at unprofitable rates or we may not be able to charter these vessels at all, which could lead to a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Spot market rates for tanker vessels are highly volatile and may decrease in the future, which may materially adversely affect our earnings in the event that our vessels are chartered in the spot market.
We may deploy at least some of our product tankers, chemical tankers and Very Large Crude Carriers (“VLCCs”) in the spot market directly or in pools. Although spot chartering is common in the product, chemical, tanker and VLCC sectors, product tankers, chemical tanker and VLCC charter hire rates are highly volatile and may fluctuate significantly based upon demand for seaborne transportation of crude oil and oil products and chemicals, as well as tanker supply. World oil demand is influenced by many factors, including international economic activity (including reactions to any economic or health crises); geographic changes in oil production, processing, and consumption; oil price levels; inventory policies of the major oil and oil trading companies; and strategic inventory policies of countries such as the United States and China. The successful operation of our vessels in the spot charter market depends upon, among other things, obtaining profitable spot charters and minimizing, to the extent possible, time spent waiting for charters and time spent traveling unladen to pick up cargo. Furthermore, as charter rates for spot charters are fixed for a single voyage that may last up to several weeks, during periods in which spot charter rates are rising, we will generally experience delays in realizing the benefits from such increases. The spot market is highly volatile, and, in the past, there have been periods when spot rates have declined below the operating cost of vessels. Currently, spot charter hire rates are at or below operating costs for most vessel sizes but there is no assurance that the crude oil, product and chemical tanker charter market will rise over the next several months or will not decline further. A decrease in spot rates may decrease the revenues and cash flow we derive from vessels employed in pools or on index linked charters. Such volatility in pool or index linked charters may be mitigated by any minimum rate due to us that we negotiate with our charterers.
Additionally, if the spot market rates or short-term time charter rates become significantly lower than the time charter equivalent rates that some of our charterers are obligated to pay us under our existing charters, the charterers may have incentive to default under that charter or attempt to renegotiate the charter. If our charterers fail to pay their obligations, we would have to attempt to re-charter our vessels at lower charter rates, which would affect our ability to comply with our loan covenants and operate our vessels profitably. If we are not able to comply with our loan covenants and our lenders choose to accelerate our indebtedness and foreclose their liens, we could be required to sell vessels in our fleet and our ability to continue to conduct our business would be impaired.
Certain of our VLCC product tanker and chemical tanker vessels are contractually committed to time charters. We are not permitted to unilaterally terminate the charter agreements of these vessels due to upswings in the tanker industry cycle, when spot market voyages might be more profitable. We may also decide to sell a vessel in the future. In such a case, should we sell a vessel that is committed to a long-term charter, we may not be able to realize the full charter free fair market value of the vessel during a period when spot market charters are more profitable than the charter agreement under which the vessel operates. We may re-charter our tanker vessels on long-term charters or charter them in the spot market or place them in pools upon expiration or termination of the vessels’ current charters.
An oversupply of tanker vessel capacity may lead to reductions in charter hire rates, vessel values and profitability.
The market supply of tankers is affected by a number of factors, such as demand for energy resources and primarily oil and petroleum products, level of charter hire rates, asset and newbuilding prices, availability of financing as well as overall economic growth, and has been increasing as a result of the delivery of substantial newbuilding orders over the last few years. We believe that the current order book for tanker vessels represents a significant percentage of the existing fleet; however the percentage of the total tanker fleet on order as a percent of the total fleet declined from 20% at the start of 2016 to 8% as of the beginning of April 2021. If the capacity of new ships delivered exceeds the capacity of tankers being scrapped and lost, tanker capacity will increase. If the supply of tanker capacity increases and if the demand for tanker capacity does not increase correspondingly, charter rates and vessel values could materially decline. If such a reduction occurs, we may only be able to recharter our vessels at reduced or unprofitable rates as their current charters expire, or we may not be able to charter these vessels at all, which could lead to a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Increasing energy self-sufficiency in the United States could lead to a decrease in imports of oil to that country, which to date has been one of the largest importers of oil worldwide.
According to the 2021 Annual Energy Outlook published in January 2021 by the US Energy Information Agency (“EIA”): The United States is both an importer and exporter of petroleum liquids, importing mostly heavy crude oil and exporting mostly light crude as well as petroleum products such as gasoline and diesel. Even though product exports in 2020 were lower than previous years, the AEO2021 Reference case projects relatively high levels of exports for petroleum and other liquids exports through 2050. These high exports levels are primarily a result of less consumption of liquid fuels in the US and, to a lesser extent, because domestic crude oil cannot be processed economically and is more valuable when exported. Net exports of petroleum and other liquids hold steady in the Reference case and stay in a similar range for the rest of the projection period to 2050 averaging over 1.3 million barrels per day (“MBPD”) of net exports. Similarly in the annual World Energy Outlook (October 2020), the International Energy Agency (“IEA”) forecast that U.S. crude oil output will rise to 19.0 MBPD by 2040 from 17.2 MBPD in 2019 while Saudi Arabia increases production from 11.8 MBPD in 2019 to 14.1 MBPD in 2040, making the U.S. the world’s largest oil producer from now until 2040 ahead of both Saudi Arabia and Russia. North, Central and South America will increase oil net exports by 7.0 MBPD in 2030 (77% of the increase in net exports). China, India and Other Asia will increase net oil imports by 7.2 MBPD in 2030 (95% of the increase in net imports) which will continue the trend of shipping more Atlantic basin oil to China, India and Other Asian countries.
In recent years the share of total U.S. consumption met by total liquid fuel net imports, including both crude oil and products, has been decreasing since peaking at over 68% in 2008 according to BP’s 2020 Statistical Review and stood at 47% for 2019. EIA statistics for 2020 show that U.S. crude oil imports fell 14% to an average of 5.9 MBPD under the 6.8 MBPD for 2019, and the average imports are still below the June 2005 peak of 10.8 MBPD. EIA statistics note that U.S. crude oil exports have risen steadily since the ban on exports was lifted in 2015 reaching an all-time high of 3.7 MBPD in February 2020 and stood at 3.2 MBPD in January 2021, which was a very significant increase over the most recent low of 9,100 barrels per day exported in 2002 on average. A slowdown in oil imports to or exports from the United States, one of the most important oil trading nations worldwide, may result in decreased demand for our vessels and lower charter rates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to make cash distributions.
A number of third party owners have ordered so-called modern vessels, which can offer substantial bunker savings as compared to older vessels. Increased demand for and supply of modern vessels could reduce demand for certain of our existing older vessels and expose us to lower vessel utilization and/or decreased charter rates.
The product tanker newbuilding order book as of April 2021 is estimated at 160 vessels or 5% of the current product tanker fleet and the VLCC orderbook is estimated at 82 vessels or 10% of the current VLCC fleet according to Clarksons Research Services Limited. The majority of these orders are based on vessel improvements such as improved propulsion system or other technical measures, which purport to offer material bunker savings compared to older vessels, which include certain of our vessels. Such savings could result in a substantial reduction of bunker cost for charterers compared to such vessels of ours. As the supply of such modern vessel increases and if charterers prefer such vessels over our vessels, this may reduce demand for our existing older vessels, impair our ability to recharter such vessels at competitive rates and have a material adverse effect on our cash flows and operations.
A number of third party owners have ordered exhaust gas scrubbers for their vessels to comply with IMO 2020 requirements to reduce sulphur emissions from fuel burned at sea, which may offer substantial bunker savings as compared to vessels without. Increased demand for and supply of vessels fitted with scrubbers could reduce demand for certain of our existing vessels and expose us to lower vessel utilization and/or decreased charter rates.
As of April 19, 2021 there were about 5,095 deep sea tankers over 10,000 DWT (excluding specialized and small handy tankers), according to Clarksons Research services Limited. Owners have fitted or planned to fit scrubbers on 1,020 of these existing tankers or about 21% of the fleet. Newbuildings are expected to fit a further 77 tankers with scrubbers out of a total of about 342 tankers on order or about 23%. Fitting scrubbers will allow a ship to consume high sulphur fuel oil (“HSFO”) which is expected to be cheaper than the low sulphur fuel oil (“LSFO”) that ships without scrubbers must consume to comply with the IMO 2020 low sulphur emission requirements. Generally, the economics favor installing scrubbers on larger ships due to the increased fuel consumption of those ships but also depend on the availability of HSFO and the cost differential between it and LSFO. As such VLCCs are expected to retrofit or install scrubbers on about 42% of the existing fleet as opposed to about 14% of the fleet of tankers that are between 10,000 and 55,000 DWT. Savings from operating scrubber fitted ships could result in a substantial reduction of bunker cost for charterers compared to vessels of our fleet which may not have scrubbers. If the supply of such scrubber fitted vessel increases and if the differential between the cost of HSFO and LSFO remains high and if charterers prefer such vessels over our vessels, this may reduce demand for our existing vessels, impair our ability to recharter such vessels at competitive rates and have a material adverse effect on our cash flows and operations.
Increased competition in technology and innovation could reduce our charter hire income and the value of our vessels.
The charter hire rates and the value and operational life of a vessel are determined by a number of factors including the vessel’s efficiency, operational flexibility and physical life. Efficiency includes vessel speed, fuel economy, loading and discharging speed and personnel required to operate. The potential introduction of remote controlled or autonomous vessels, which would significantly reduce or eliminate the costs of crew and victuals, could put our vessels at an efficiency disadvantage. Flexibility includes the ability to enter harbors, utilize related docking facilities and pass through canals and straits. The length of a vessel’s physical life is related to its original design and construction, its maintenance and the impact of the stress of operations. If new vessels are built that are more efficient or more flexible or have longer physical lives than our vessels, competition from these more technologically advanced vessels could adversely affect the amount of charter hire payments we receive for our vessels upon expiration of their current charters and the resale value of our vessels could significantly decrease. This could adversely affect our revenues and cash flows, and our ability to service our debt or declare dividends to holders of our common stock. As a result, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.
Charter rates in the crude oil tankers sector in which we operate and in the product and chemical tanker sectors of the seaborne transportation industry have significantly declined from historically high levels in 2008 and may remain depressed or decline further in the future, which may adversely affect our earnings.
Charter rates in the crude oil, product and chemical tanker sectors have significantly declined from historically high levels in 2008 and may remain depressed or decline further. For example, the Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) declined from a high of 2,347 in July 2008 to 453 in mid-April 2009, which represents a decline of approximately 81%. Since January 2019, it has traded between an all time low of 403 and a high of 1,958; as of April 23, 2021, it stood at 604. The Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BCTI) fell from 1,509 in the early summer of 2008 to 345 in April 2009, or an approximate 77% decline. It has traded between an all time low of 309 and an all time high of 2,190 since January 2019 and stood at 484 as of April 23, 2021. Of note is that Chinese imports of crude oil have steadily increased from three million barrels per day in 2008 to a record 13 million barrels per day in June 2020 and stood at 11.7 million barrels per day in March 2021. Additionally, since the U.S. removed its ban at the end of 2015, U.S. crude oil exports increased by about 840% from 0.4 million barrels per day to a record 3.7 million barrels per day in February 2020; however, crude exports fell to 3.2 million barrels per day in January 2021 due to decreased demand and restrictions imposed by the pandemic response. The U.S. has steadily increased its total petroleum product exports by about 508% to a record 6.3 million barrels per day in February 2020 from one million barrels per day in January 2006. Product exports have since fallen to 5.6 million barrels per day during January 2021. If the tanker sector of the seaborne transportation industry, which has been highly cyclical, is depressed in the future at a time when we may want to sell a vessel, our earnings and available cash flow may be adversely affected. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully charter our vessels in the future at rates sufficient to allow us to operate our business profitably or to meet our obligations, including payment of debt service to our lenders. Our ability to renew the charters on vessels that we may acquire in the future, the charter rates payable under any replacement charters and vessel values will depend upon, among other things, economic conditions in the sector in which our vessels operate at that time, changes in the supply and demand for vessel capacity and changes in the supply and demand for the seaborne transportation of energy resources and commodities.
Any decrease in shipments of crude oil from the Arabian Gulf or the Atlantic basin may adversely affect our financial performance.
The demand for VLCC oil tankers derives primarily from demand for Arabian Gulf and Atlantic basin (West Africa, United States, Brazil, North Sea, Guyana and other) crude oils, which, in turn, primarily depend on the economies of the world’s industrial countries and competition from alternative energy sources. A wide range of economic, social and other factors can significantly affect the strength of the world’s industrial economies and their demand for Arabian Gulf and Atlantic basin crude oil.
Among the factors that could lead to a decrease in demand for exported Arabian Gulf and Atlantic basin crude oil are:
|•||increased use of existing and future crude oil pipelines in the Arabian Gulf or Atlantic basin regions;|
|•||increased demand for crude oil in the Arabian Gulf or Atlantic basin regions;|
|•||a decision by OPEC or other petroleum exporters to increase their crude oil prices or to further decrease or limit their crude oil production;|
|•||any increase in refining of crude into petroleum products for domestic consumption or export;|
|•||armed conflict or acts of piracy in the Arabian Gulf or Atlantic basin including West Africa and political or other factors;|
|•||economic and pandemic related crises that decrease oil demand generally;|
|•||changes to oil production in other regions, such as the United States, Russia and Latin America; and|
|•||the development and the relative costs of nuclear power, natural gas, coal and other alternative sources of energy.|
Any significant decrease in shipments of crude oil from the Arabian Gulf or Atlantic basin may materially adversely affect our financial performance.
Delays in deliveries of second-hand vessels, our decision to cancel an order for purchase of a vessel or our inability to otherwise complete the acquisitions of additional vessels for our fleet, could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We expect to purchase second-hand vessels from time to time. The delivery of these vessels could be delayed, not completed or cancelled, which would delay or eliminate our expected receipt of revenues from the employment of these vessels. The seller could fail to deliver these vessels to us as agreed, or we could cancel a purchase contract because the seller has not met its obligations.
If the delivery of any vessel is materially delayed or cancelled, especially if we have committed the vessel to a charter to whom we become responsible for substantial liquidated damages as a result of the delay or cancellation, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Delays in deliveries of any newbuilding vessels we may contract to acquire or order in the future, or our decision to cancel, or our inability to otherwise complete the acquisitions of any newbuildings, could harm our operating results and lead to the termination of any related charters.
Any newbuildings we may contract to acquire or order in the future could be delayed, not completed or cancelled, which would delay or eliminate our expected receipt of revenues under any charters for such vessels. The shipbuilder or third party seller could fail to deliver the newbuilding vessel or any other vessels we acquire or order, or we could cancel a purchase or a newbuilding contract because the shipbuilder has not met its obligations, including its obligation to maintain agreed refund guarantees in place for our benefit. For prolonged delays, our charterer may terminate the time charter.
Our receipt of newbuildings could be delayed, canceled, or otherwise not completed because of:
|•||quality or engineering problems or failure to deliver the vessel in accordance with the vessel specifications;|
|•||changes in governmental regulations or maritime self-regulatory organization standards;|
|•||work stoppages or other labor disturbances at the shipyard;|
|•||bankruptcy or other financial or liquidity problems of the shipbuilder;|
|•||a backlog of orders at the shipyard;|
|•||political or economic disturbances in the country or region where the vessel is being built;|
|•||weather interference or a catastrophic event, such as a major earthquake, fire or outbreak of a contagion, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;|
|•||the shipbuilder failing to deliver the vessel in accordance with our vessel specifications;|
|•||our requests for changes to the original vessel specifications;|
|•||shortages of or delays in the receipt of necessary construction materials, such as steel; or|
|•||our inability to finance the purchase of the vessel.|
|•||a natural or man-made force majeure.|
If delivery of any newbuilt vessel acquired, or any vessel we contract to acquire in the future is materially delayed, it could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Certain vessels in our fleet are second-hand vessels, and we may acquire more second-hand vessels in the future. The acquisition and operation of such vessels may result in increased operating costs and vessel off-hire, which could materially adversely affect our earnings.
As of April 20, 2021, the vessels in our core fleet had an average age of approximately 9.4 years, basis fully delivered fleet and most tanker vessels have an expected life of approximately 25 years. Certain vessels in our fleet are second-hand vessels and we may acquire more second-hand vessels in the future. Our inspection of second-hand vessels prior to purchase does not provide us with the same knowledge about their condition and cost of any required or anticipated repairs that we would have had if these vessels had been built for and operated exclusively by us. Generally, we will not receive the benefit of warranties on second-hand vessels.
In general, the costs to maintain a vessel in good operating condition increase with the age of the vessel. Due to improvements in engine technology, older vessels are typically less fuel efficient and more costly to maintain than more recently constructed vessels. Cargo insurance rates increase with the age of a vessel, making older vessels less desirable to charterers.
Governmental regulations, safety or other equipment standards related to the age of vessels may require expenditures for alterations or the addition of new equipment to our vessels and may restrict the type of activities in which the vessels may engage or the geographic regions in which we may operate. We cannot predict what alterations or modifications our vessels may be required to undergo in the future. As our vessels age, market conditions may not justify those expenditures or enable us to operate our vessels profitably during the remainder of their useful lives.
Although we have considered the age and condition of the vessels in budgeting for operating, insurance and maintenance costs, we may encounter higher operating and maintenance costs due to the age and condition of these vessels, or any additional vessels we acquire in the future. The age of some of our VLCC vessels may result in higher operating costs and increased vessel off-hire periods relative to our competitors that operate newer fleets, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our growth depends on continued growth in demand for crude oil, refined petroleum products (clean and dirty) and bulk liquid chemicals and the continued demand for seaborne transportation of such cargoes.
Our growth strategy focuses on expansion in the crude oil, product and chemical tanker sectors. Accordingly, our growth depends on continued growth in world and regional demand for crude oil, refined petroleum (clean and dirty) products and bulk liquid chemicals and the transportation of such cargoes by sea, which could be negatively affected by a number of factors, including:
|•||the economic and financial developments globally, including actual and projected global economic growth;|
|•||fluctuations in the actual or projected price of crude oil, refined petroleum products or bulk liquid chemicals;|
|•||refining or production capacity and its geographical location;|
|•||increases in the production of oil in areas linked by pipelines to consuming areas, the extension of existing, or the development of new, pipeline systems in markets we may serve, or the conversion of existing non-oil pipelines to oil pipelines in those markets;|
|•||decreases in the consumption of oil due to increases in its price relative to other energy sources, other factors making consumption of oil less attractive or energy conservation measures or pollution reduction measures or those intended to reduce global warming;|
|•||availability of new, alternative energy sources; and|
|•||negative or deteriorating global or regional economic or political conditions or health conditions (including changes to trade policies, decreases or withdrawals of stimulus measures meant to counteract the effect of economic or health or other crises), particularly in oil-consuming regions, which could reduce energy consumption or its growth.|
The refining and chemical industries may respond to any economic downturn and demand weakness by reducing operating rates, partially or completely closing refineries or bulk liquid chemical production facilities and by reducing or cancelling certain investment expansion plans, including plans for additional refining or production capacity. Continued reduced demand for refined petroleum products and bulk liquid chemicals and the shipping of such cargoes or the increased availability of pipelines used to transport refined petroleum products, and bulk liquid chemicals would have a material adverse effect on our future growth and could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may be unable to make or realize expected benefits from acquisitions, and implementing our growth strategy through acquisitions may harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
Any acquisition of a vessel may not be profitable to us at or after the time we acquire it and may not generate cash flow sufficient to justify our investment. In addition, our growth strategy exposes us to risks that may harm our business, financial condition and operating results, including risks that we may:
|•||fail to realize anticipated benefits, such as new customer relationships, cost-savings or cash flow enhancements;|
|•||be unable to hire, train or retain qualified shore and seafaring personnel to manage and operate our growing business and fleet;|
|•||be unable to integrate any acquired vessels or businesses successfully with our existing operations;|
|•||decrease our liquidity by using a significant portion of our available cash or borrowing capacity to finance acquisitions;|
|•||significantly increase our interest expense or financial leverage if we incur additional debt to finance acquisitions; or|
|•||incur or assume unanticipated liabilities, losses or costs associated with the business or vessels acquired.|
Increasing growth of electric vehicles and renewable fuels could lead to a decrease in trading and the movement of crude oil and petroleum products worldwide.
The IEA noted in its Global EV Outlook 2020 that total electric cars registered worldwide grew from about 17,000 in 2010 to 7.2 million in 2019. Electric car sales in 2019 were 2.1 million, up about 6% from 2019, and down from at least 30% growth per year each year since 2016. This was due to a reduction in electric car purchase subsidies in the U.S. and China which was offset by a sales increase of 50% in Europe in 2019. IEA forecasts are for electric vehicles (“EVs”) to grow from 8 million in 2019 to 50 million registered vehicles by 2025 and 140 million by 2030 which the IEA forecasts would reduce worldwide demand for oil products by 2.5 million barrels per day in 2030. IEA stated that EV operations in 2019 avoided the consumption of almost 0.6 million barrels per day of oil products. According to the World Economic Forum there were about 1.1 billion cars registered in 2015 and there will be about 2 billion cars registered by 2040.
According to the EIA, U.S. biodiesel production increased rapidly from 32 thousand barrels per day in 2009 to 118 thousand barrels per day in 2020, a growth of about 260% (that production was up from 112 thousand barrels a day in 2019). During the same period diesel production from U.S. refineries grew from an average of 4.0 million barrels per day in 2009 to maximum of 5.6 million barrels per day in December 2018 before declining to 4.6 million barrels per day in January 2021 during the pandemic. A growth in EVs or a slowdown in imports or exports of crude or petroleum products worldwide, may result in decreased demand for our vessels and lower charter rates, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to make cash distributions.
Our growth depends on our ability to obtain customers, for which we face substantial competition. In the highly competitive tanker industry, we may not be able to compete for charters with new entrants or established companies with greater resources, which may adversely affect our results of operations.
We employ our tanker vessels (or will employ in the case of any crude, product, chemical, liquefied natural gas (“LNG”) or liquefied petroleum gas (“LPG”) tanker vessels that we may acquire) in the highly competitive crude oil, product, chemical, LNG and LPG tanker sectors of the shipping industry that is capital intensive and fragmented. Competition arises primarily from other vessel owners, including major oil companies and traders as well as independent tanker companies, some of whom have substantially greater resources and experience than us. Competition for the chartering of tankers can be intense and depends on price, location, size, age, condition, quality operations and safety, experience and technical capability of the crew and the acceptability of the vessel and its managers to the charterers. Such competition has been enhanced as a result of the downturn in the shipping industry, which has resulted in an excess supply of vessels and reduced charter rates.
Medium to long-term time charters and bareboat charters have the potential to provide income at pre-determined rates over more extended periods of time. However, the process for obtaining longer term time charters and bareboat charters is highly competitive and generally involves a lengthy, intensive and continuous screening and vetting process and the submission of competitive bids that often extends for several months. In addition to the quality, age and suitability of the vessel, longer term shipping contracts tend to be awarded based upon a variety of other factors relating to the vessel operator. Competition for the transportation of crude oil, refined petroleum products and bulk liquid chemicals can be intense and depends on price, location, size, age, condition and acceptability of the vessel and our managers to the charterers.
In addition to having to meet the stringent requirements set out by charterers, it is likely that we will also face substantial competition from a number of competitors who may have greater financial resources, stronger reputations or experience than we do when we try to re-charter our vessels. It is also likely that we will face increased numbers of competitors entering in the crude oil, product and chemical tanker sectors, including in the ice class sector. Increased competition may cause greater price competition, especially for medium- to long-term charters. Due in part to the highly fragmented markets, competitors with greater resources or less debt could operate larger fleets through consolidations or acquisitions that may be able to offer better prices and fleets than ours.
As a result of these factors, we may be unable to obtain customers for medium- to long-term time charters or bareboat charters on a profitable basis, if at all. Even if we are successful in employing our vessels under longer term time charters or bareboat charters, our vessels will not be available for trading in the spot market during an upturn in the crude oil, product and chemical tanker market cycles, when spot trading may be more profitable. If we cannot successfully employ our vessels in profitable time charters our results of operations and operating cash flow could be adversely affected.
If we fail to manage our planned growth properly, we may not be able to expand our fleet successfully, which may adversely affect our overall financial position.
While we have no specific plans, we do intend to continue to expand our fleet in the future. Our growth will depend on:
|•||locating and acquiring suitable vessels, whether new or second hand;|
|•||identifying reputable shipyards with available capacity and contracting with them for the construction of new vessels;|
|•||integrating any acquired vessels successfully with our existing operations;|
|•||enhancing our customer base;|
|•||managing our expansion;|
|•||sourcing crew qualified for the vessels acquired and modifying any management systems or inventories needed for the acquired vessels;|
|•||obtaining required financing, including working capital, which could include debt, equity or combinations thereof; and|
|•||improving our operating and financial system and controls.|
Additionally, the marine transportation and logistics industries are capital intensive, traditionally using substantial amounts of indebtedness to finance vessel acquisitions, capital expenditures and working capital needs. If we finance the purchase of our vessels through indebtedness, including the issuance of debt securities, it could result in:
|•||default and foreclosure on our assets if our operating cash flow after a business combination or asset acquisition were insufficient to pay our debt obligations;|
|•||acceleration of our obligations to repay the indebtedness even if we have made all principal and interest payments when due if the debt security contained covenants that required the maintenance of certain financial ratios, including those related to vessel values, or reserves and any such covenant were breached without a waiver or renegotiation of that covenant;|
|•||our immediate payment of all principal and accrued interest, if any, if the debt security was payable on demand; and|
|•||our inability to obtain additional financing, if necessary, if the debt security contained covenants restricting our ability to obtain additional financing while such security was outstanding.|
In addition, our business plan and strategy is predicated on buying vessels in a market at what we believe is near a low, but recovering phase of the periodic cycle in what has typically been a cyclical industry. However, there is no assurance that charter rates and vessels asset values will not sink lower, or that there will be an upswing in shipping costs or vessel asset values in the near-term or at all, in which case our business plan and strategy may not succeed in the near-term or at all. Growing any business by acquisition presents numerous risks such as undisclosed liabilities and obligations, difficulty experienced in obtaining additional qualified personnel and managing relationships with customers and suppliers and integrating newly acquired operations into existing infrastructures. We may not be successful in growing and may incur significant expenses and losses.
We may face unexpected maintenance costs, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If our vessels suffer damage or require upgrade work, they may need to be repaired at a drydocking facility. Our vessels may occasionally require upgrade work in order to maintain their classification society rating or as a result of changes in regulatory requirements. In addition, our vessels will be off-hire periodically for intermediate surveys and special surveys in connection with each vessel’s certification by its classification society. The costs of drydock repairs are unpredictable and can be substantial and the loss of earnings while these vessels are being repaired and reconditioned, as well as the actual cost of these repairs, would decrease our earnings. Our insurance generally only covers a portion of drydocking expenses resulting from damage to a vessel and expenses related to maintenance of a vessel will not be reimbursed. In addition, space at drydocking facilities is sometimes limited and not all drydocking facilities are conveniently located. We may be unable to find space at a suitable drydocking facility on a timely basis or may be forced to move a damaged vessel to a drydocking facility that is not conveniently located to the vessel’s position. The loss of earnings while any of our vessels are forced to wait for space or to relocate to drydocking facilities that are far away from the routes on which our vessels trade would further decrease our earnings.
Our vessels may be subject to unbudgeted periods of off-hire, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Under the terms of the charter agreements under which our vessels operate, or are expected to operate in the case of the newbuildings, when a vessel is “off-hire,” or not available for service or otherwise deficient in its condition or performance, the charterer generally is not required to pay the hire rate, and we will be responsible for all costs (including the cost of bunker fuel) unless the charterer is responsible for the circumstances giving rise to the lack of availability. A vessel generally will be deemed to be off-hire if there is an occurrence preventing the full working of the vessel due to, among other things:
|•||the removal of a vessel from the water for repairs, maintenance or inspection, which is referred to as drydocking;|
|•||delays due to accidents or deviations from course;|
|•||occurrence of hostilities in the vessel’s flag state or in the event of piracy;|
|•||crewing strikes, labor boycotts, certain vessel detentions or similar problems;|
|•||our failure to maintain the vessel in compliance with its specifications, contractual standards and applicable country of registry and international regulations or to provide the required crew; or|
|•||a natural or man-made event of force majeure.|
The market values of tanker vessels have declined from historically high levels and may fluctuate significantly, which could cause us to breach covenants in our credit facilities, result in the foreclosure of certain of our vessels, limit the amount of funds that we can borrow and adversely affect our ability to purchase new vessels and our operating results. Depressed vessel values could also cause us to incur impairment charges.
Due to the slow growth in world trade, the increase in the tanker fleet and declining tanker charter rates, the market values of our vessels and any contracted newbuildings and of tankers generally, are currently significantly lower than they would have been prior to the downturn in the second half of 2008. From October 2019 to March 2020, smaller product tanker yard resale prices at $40 million per vessel remained above the average 2015 price of $38 million but have since dropped to $36 million as of April 2021. Vessel values may decline at lower levels and may remain low for a prolonged period of time and can fluctuate substantially over time due to a number of different factors, including:
|•||prevailing level of charter rates;|
|•||general economic and market conditions affecting the shipping industry;|
|•||competition from other shipping companies;|
|•||types, sizes and age of vessels;|
|•||sophistication and condition of the vessels;|
|•||advances in efficiency, such as the introduction of autonomous vessels;|
|•||where the ship was built and as-built specifications;|
|•||lifetime maintenance record;|
|•||supply and demand for vessels;|
|•||other modes of transportation;|
|•||cost of newbuildings;|
|•||whether the tanker vessel is equipped with scrubbers or not;|
|•||global economic or pandemic related crises;|
|•||governmental or other regulations, including environmental regulations;|
|•||technological advances; and|
|•||ability of buyers to access financing and capital.|
If the market value of our vessels decreases, we may breach some of the covenants contained in the financing agreements relating to our indebtedness at the time. Our credit facilities contain covenants including maximum total net liabilities over total net assets (effective in general after delivery of the vessels), minimum net worth and loan to value ratio covenants of generally lower than 75% or 80% and for certain facilities, as amended for a specific period of time until December 31, 2019 to be ranging from a maximum of 80% to 85%. If we breach any such covenants in the future and we are unable to remedy the relevant breach, our lenders could accelerate or require us to prepay a portion of our debt and foreclose on our vessels. In addition, if the book value of a vessel is impaired due to unfavorable market conditions, we would incur a loss that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, as vessels grow older, they generally decline in value. We will review our vessels for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable.
We review certain indicators of potential impairment, such as undiscounted projected operating cash flows expected from the future operation of the vessels, which can be volatile for vessels employed on short-term charters or in the spot market. Any impairment charges incurred as a result of declines in charter rates would negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if we sell any vessel at a time when vessel prices have fallen and before we have recorded an impairment adjustment to our financial statements, the sale may be at less than the vessel’s carrying amount on our financial statements, resulting in a loss and a reduction in earnings. Conversely, if vessel values are elevated at a time when we wish to acquire additional vessels, the cost of acquisition may increase and this could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Future increases in vessel operating expenses, including rising fuel prices, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Under our time charter agreements, the charterer is responsible for substantially all of the voyage expenses, including port and canal charges and fuel costs, and we are generally responsible for vessel operating expenses. Vessel operating expenses are the costs of operating a vessel, primarily consisting of crew wages and associated costs, insurance premiums, management fees, lubricants and spare parts and repair and maintenance costs. In particular, the cost of fuel is a significant factor in negotiating charter rates. This cost will be borne by us when our vessels are not employed or are employed on voyage charters or contracts of affreightment. To the extent we are not employed or enter into the aforementioned contracts, an increase in the price of fuel beyond our expectations may adversely affect our profitability. Even where the cost of fuel is borne by the charterer, which is the case with all of our existing time charters that cost may affect the level of charter rates that charterers are prepared to pay. A decrease in the cost of fuel may lead our charterers to abandon slow steaming, thereby releasing additional capacity into the market and exerting downward pressure on charter rates or may lead our charterers to employ older, less fuel efficient vessels which may drive down charter rates and make it more difficult for us to secure employment for our newer vessels. As a result, an increase in the price of fuel beyond our expectations may adversely affect our profitability. The price and supply of fuel is unpredictable and fluctuates based on events outside our control, including geopolitical developments, supply and demand for oil, actions by members of OPEC and other oil and gas producers, war, terrorism and unrest in oil producing countries and regions, regional production patterns and environmental concerns and regulations. As of January 1, 2020, the entry into force of MARPOL Annex VI has led to an increase in fuel costs due to the use of low sulphur fuel by vessels that are not equipped with exhaust gas scrubbers. Since our vessels are mostly employed on a time charter basis, the cost of fuel is born by our charterers, making our vessels not equipped with scrubbers to be less competitive compared to ones that are (which can utilize the less expensive high sulphur fuel). Ships not retrofitted with exhaust gas scrubbers, thus they may have difficulty finding employment, may obtain lower charter hires and/or may need to be scrapped, which may negatively impact our revenues and cash flows as well as our future operations.
We generally receive a daily rate for the use of our vessels, which is fixed through the term of the applicable charter agreement. Our charter agreements do not provide for any increase in the daily hire rate in the event that vessel-operating expenses increase during the term of the charter agreement. Increases in the fees for shipmanagement services of our vessels over the term of a charter agreement will effectively reduce our operating income and, if such increases in operating expenses are significant, adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have fixed the fees for ship management services of our owned fleet with the Manager until January 1, 2025. Commencing on January 1, 2020 for two years, at a fixed daily fee of: (a) $7,225 per owned LR1 product tanker vessel, (b) $6,825 per owned MR1 and MR2 product tanker vessel and chemical tanker vessel, (c) $9,650 per VLCC tanker vessel, (d) $5,250 per day per Container vessel of 1,500 TEU up to 1,999 TEU; and (e) $6,100 per day per Container vessel of 2,000 TEU up to 3,450 TEU. Commencing January 1, 2022, for each 12 month period the daily fees shall be increased by 3% annually. A technical and commercial management daily fee of $50 per vessel shall be payable commencing January 01, 2020. Drydocking expenses under our management agreement (as amended, the “Management Agreement”) are reimbursed at cost for all vessels. For more information on the Management Agreement, please read “Item 7. — Major Stockholders and Related Party Transactions”.
The crude oil, product and chemical tanker sectors are subject to seasonal fluctuations in demand and, therefore, may cause volatility in our operating results.
The crude oil, product and chemical tanker sectors of the shipping industry have historically exhibited seasonal variations in demand and, as a result, in charter hire rates. This seasonality may result in quarter-to-quarter volatility in our operating results. The product and chemical tanker markets are typically stronger in the fall and winter months in anticipation of increased consumption of oil and natural gas in the northern hemisphere. In addition, unpredictable weather patterns in these months tend to disrupt vessel scheduling and supplies of certain commodities. As a result, revenues are typically weaker during the fiscal quarters ended June 30 and September 30, and, conversely, typically stronger in fiscal quarters ended December 31 and March 31. Our operating results, therefore, may be subject to seasonal fluctuations.
A decrease in the level of China’s imports of crude oil or petroleum products or a decrease in oil trade globally could have a material adverse impact on our charterers’ business and, in turn, could cause a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
China imports significant quantities of crude oil and trades significant quantities of petroleum products. For example in 2016, China imported about 354 million tons of crude oil by sea compared with crude oil imports to the United States of about 238 million tons. In 2018, China imported 412 million tons crude oil by sea (the United States imported 203 million tons by sea; 2018 is the latest available full year data for imports by sea). Total crude imports for China were 462 million tons in 2018 and 542 million tons in 2020.
Total crude imports for the United States were 308 million tons in 2018 and 260 million tons in 2020. Our tanker vessels are deployed by our charterers on routes involving crude oil and petroleum product trades in and out of emerging markets, and our charterers’ oil shipping and business revenue may be derived from the shipment of goods within and to the Asia Pacific region from various overseas export markets. Any reduction in or hindrance to China-based importers could have a material adverse effect on the growth rate of China’s imports and on our charterers’ business. For instance, the government of China has implemented economic policies aimed at reducing pollution and increasing the strategic stock piling of crude oil. Should these policies change, this may have the effect of reducing crude oil imports or petroleum product exports and may, in turn, result in a decrease in demand for oil shipping. Additionally, though in China there is an increasing level of autonomy and a gradual shift in emphasis to a “market economy” and enterprise reform, many of the reforms, particularly some limited price reforms that result in the prices for certain commodities being principally determined by market forces, are unprecedented or experimental and may be subject to revision, change or abolition. The level of imports to and exports from China could be adversely affected by changes to these economic reforms by the Chinese government, as well as by changes in political, economic and social conditions or other relevant policies of the Chinese government. Although China exerts a large effect on the seaborne market for crude oil and petroleum products, any decreases in trade in those commodities by any of the countries in other major trading regions in North America, Europe and Asia could depress time charter rates which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and our ability to pay cash distributions to our shareholders.
Our operations expose us to the risk that increased trade protectionism from China, the United States or other nations will adversely affect our business. If the global recovery is undermined by downside risks and the recent economic downturn returns, governments may turn to trade barriers to protect their domestic industries against foreign imports, thereby depressing the demand for shipping. Specifically, increasing trade protectionism in the markets that our charterers serve may cause (i) a decrease in cargoes available to our charterers in favor of Chinese charterers and Chinese owned ships and (ii) an increase in the risks associated with importing goods to China. Any increased trade barriers or restrictions on trade, especially trade with China, would have an adverse impact on our charterers’ business, operating results and financial condition and could thereby affect their ability to make timely charter hire payments to us and to renew and increase the number of their time charters with us. The results of the 2020 presidential election in the United States have created significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States, China and other exporting countries, including with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. However, it is not yet clear how the new United States administration may deviate from the former administration’s foreign trade policies. Protectionist developments, or the perception that they may occur, may have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions, and may significantly reduce global trade. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and our ability to pay cash distributions to our shareholders.
The employment of our vessels could be adversely affected by an inability to clear the Oil Majors’ vetting process, and we could be in breach of our charter agreements with all of our tanker vessels.
The shipping industry is heavily regulated by international conventions, local laws and regulations, and industry-driven standards. This is particularly so with respect to the shipment of crude oil, refined petroleum products (clean and dirty), and bulk liquid chemicals.
Compliance with industry-driven standards imposed upon tanker vessel owners and operators by the so-called “Oil Majors,” such as Exxon Mobil, BP p.l.c., Royal Dutch Shell p.l.c., Chevron, ConocoPhillips and Total S.A., together with a number of commodities traders are critical to the tanker industry. The Oil Majors represent a significant percentage of the production, trading, and shipping logistics (terminals) of crude oil and refined products worldwide and they have developed and implemented a strict, ongoing due diligence process for selecting commercial partners, referred to as “vetting.”
The vetting process is a sophisticated and comprehensive risk assessment of both vessels and vessel operators, including physical ship inspections, questionnaires completed and evaluated by accredited inspectors, and the production of risk assessment reports determining the suitability of vessels and vessel operators, as well as crewmembers, for hire by the Oil Majors.
While numerous factors are considered and evaluated prior to a vetting decision, the Oil Majors, through their association, Oil Companies International Marine Forum (“OCIMF”), have developed two basic tools for vetting: the Ship Inspection Report Programme (“SIRE”), and the Tanker Management and Self-Assessment (TMSA) programme. The former is a physical ship inspection based upon a thorough vessel inspection questionnaire and performed by accredited OCIMF inspectors, resulting in a report being logged on SIRE, while the latter is a more recent addition to the risk assessment tools used by the Oil Majors.
Based upon commercial risk, there are three levels of assessment used by Oil Majors:
|•||terminal use, which clears a vessel to call at one of the Oil Major’s terminals;|
|•||voyage charter, which clears the vessel for a single voyage; and|
|•||period charter (or time charter), which clears the vessel for use for an extended period of time.|
The depth and complexity of each of these levels of assessment varies. Each charter agreement for our vessels requires that the applicable vessel have a valid SIRE report (less than six months old) in the OCIMF website as recommended by OCIMF. In addition, under the terms of the charter agreements, the charterers require that our vessels and their technical managers be vetted and approved to transport crude oil or refined petroleum products (as applicable). The technical manager is responsible for obtaining and maintaining the vetting approvals required to successfully charter our vessels.
In the case of term charter relationships, additional factors are considered when awarding such contracts, including:
|•||Office assessments and audits of the vessel operator;|
|•||The vessel operator’s environmental, health, and safety record;|
|•||Compliance with the standards of the IMO;|
|•||Compliance with Oil Majors’ codes of conduct, policies, and guidelines, including policies relating to transparency, anti-bribery and ethical conduct requirements, and relationships with third parties;|
|•||Compliance with heightened industry standards set by the Oil Majors;|
|•||Results of Port State Control inspections (see below);|
|•||Shipping industry relationships, reputation for customer services, and technical and operating expertise; and|
|•||Shipping experience and quality of ship operations, including cost-effectiveness and technical capability and experience of crewmembers.|
Under the terms of our charter agreements, both the vessels and the technical managers must be vetted and approved to transport oil products by multiple Oil Majors. Our failure to maintain any of our vessels to the standards required by the Oil Majors could put us in breach of a charter agreement and lead to termination of such agreement and, potentially, could give rise to impairment in the value of our vessels. Should we not be able to successfully clear the vetting process on an ongoing basis, the future employment of our vessels, as well as our ability to obtain charters, whether medium- or long-term, could be adversely affected. Such a situation may lead to the Oil Majors’ terminating existing charters and refusing to use our vessels in the future, which, which – in turn – would adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows.
We depend on significant customers for part of our revenue. Charterers may terminate or default on their obligations to us, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and cash flow, and breaches of the charters may be difficult to enforce.
We derive a significant part of our revenue from a number of charterers. For the year ended December 31, 2020, Navios Acquisition’s customers representing 10% or more of total revenue were Navig8 Chemicals Shipping and Trading Co (“Navig8”), China ZhenHua Oil Co., Ltd and China Shipping Development (Hong Kong) which accounted for 25.5%, 11.4%, and 10.7%, respectively, of Navios Acquisition’s revenue. The loss of any of our customers, a customer’s failure to make payments or perform under any of the applicable charters, a customer’s termination of any of the applicable charters, the loss or damage beyond repair to any of our vessels, our failure to deliver the vessel within a fixed period of time or a decline in payments under the charters could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. The charter agreements for our vessels are generally governed by English law and provide for dispute resolution in English courts or London-based arbitral proceedings. There can be no assurance that we would be able to enforce any judgments against these charterers in jurisdictions where they are based or have their primary assets and operations. Even after a charter contract is entered, charterers may terminate charters early under certain circumstances. The events or occurrences that will cause a charter to terminate or give the charterer the option to terminate the charter generally include a total or constructive total loss of the related vessel, the requisition for hire of the related vessel, the vessel becoming subject to seizure for more than a specified number of days or the failure of the related vessel to meet specified performance criteria.
In addition, the ability of a charterer to perform its obligations under a charter will depend on a number of factors that are beyond our control. These factors may include general economic conditions, the condition of the crude oil, product and chemical tanker sectors of the shipping industry, the charter rates received for specific types of vessels and various operating expenses. The costs and delays associated with the default by a charterer of a vessel may be considerable and may adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
We cannot predict whether our charterers will, upon the expiration of their charters, re-charter our vessels on favorable terms or at all. If our charterers decide not to re-charter our vessels, we may not be able to re-charter them on terms similar to our current charters or at all. Even if we manage to successfully charter our vessels in the future, our charterers may go bankrupt or fail to perform their obligations under the charter agreements, they may delay payments or suspend payments altogether, they may terminate the charter agreements prior to the agreed-upon expiration date or they may attempt to renegotiate the terms of the charters. In the future, we may also employ our vessels on the spot charter market, which is subject to greater rate fluctuation than the time charter market. If we receive lower charter rates under replacement charters or are unable to re-charter all of our vessels, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
We are subject to inherent operational risks that may not be adequately covered by our insurance. If we experience a catastrophic loss and our insurance is not adequate to cover such loss, it could lower our profitability and be detrimental to operations.
The operation of ocean-going vessels in international trade is inherently risky. The ownership and operation of ocean-going vessels in international trade is affected by a number of inherent risks, including mechanical failure, personal injury, vessel and cargo loss or damage, business interruption due to political conditions in foreign countries, hostilities, piracy, terrorism, labor strikes and/or boycotts, adverse weather conditions and catastrophic marine disaster, including environmental accidents and collisions. All of these risks could result in liability, loss of revenues, increased costs and loss of reputation.
We carry insurance for our entire fleet relating to risks commonly insured against by vessel owners and operators, including, but not limited to, hull and machinery insurance, war risks insurance, and protection and indemnity insurance (which includes environmental damage and pollution insurance); however, there may be risks that are not adequately insured against and it is possible that our existing insurance policies may not cover certain claims.
Moreover, we do not currently maintain off-hire insurance, which would cover the loss of revenue during extended vessel off-hire periods, such as those that occur during an unscheduled drydocking due to damage to the vessel from accidents. Other events that may lead to off-hire periods include, but are not limited to, quarantines, labor disputes at ports, embargoes, as well as natural or man-made disasters that result in the closure of certain waterways and prevent vessels from entering or leaving certain ports. We also do not carry strike insurance. Accordingly, any extended vessel off-hire, due to an accident or otherwise, or strikes, could have a materially adverse effect on our business.
Any claims covered by insurance would be subject to deductibles. As it is possible that a large number of claims could be lodged against our policies, the aggregate amount of such deductibles could be material. We may be unable to procure adequate insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates in the future. For example, the imposition of more stringent environmental regulations previously increased insurance costs, and in the future could result in unavailability of insurance against risks of environmental damage or pollution. Comparably, a catastrophic oil spill or marine disaster could exceed our insurance coverage, which could harm our financial condition and operating results. Changes in the insurance markets attributable to the risk of terrorism in certain locations around the world potentially could make it difficult for us to obtain certain types of coverage. In addition, the insurance that may be available to us may be significantly more expensive than our existing coverage.
We also may be subject to calls, or premiums, in amounts based not only on our own claim records but also the claim records of all other members of the protection and indemnity associations through which we receive indemnity insurance coverage for tort liability. In addition, our protection and indemnity associations may not have enough resources to cover claims made against them. The amount of such calls could be significant, and such expense could reduce our cash flow and strain our liquidity and capital resources. Furthermore, in the future, we may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates for our fleet. Our insurance policies also contain deductibles, limitations and exclusions which, although we believe will be standard for the shipping industry, may result in significant increased overall costs to us.
Finally, even if our insurance coverage is adequate to cover our losses, we may not be able to timely obtain a replacement vessel in the event of a loss.
We may be subject to litigation that, if not resolved in our favor and not sufficiently insured against, could have a material adverse effect on us.
We have been and may be, from time to time, involved in various litigation matters. These matters may include, among other things, contract disputes, personal injury claims, environmental claims or proceedings, and other tort claims, employment matters, governmental claims for taxes or duties, and other litigation that arises in the ordinary course of our business. Although we intend to defend these matters vigorously, we cannot predict with certainty the outcome or effect of any claim or other litigation matter, and the ultimate outcome of any litigation or the potential costs to resolve them may have a material adverse effect on us. Insurance may not be applicable or sufficient in all cases and/or insurers may not remain solvent which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
We are subject to various laws, regulations, and international conventions, particularly environmental and safety requirements, that could require significant expenditures both to maintain compliance with such requirements and to pay for any uninsured environmental liabilities including any resulting from a spill or other environmental incident, which could affect our cash flows and net income.
Vessel owners and operators are subject to government regulation in the form of international conventions, and national, state, and local laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which their vessels operate, in international waters, as well as in the country or countries where their vessels are registered. Such laws and regulations include those governing the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, the cleanup of oil spills and other contamination, air emissions, discharges of operational and other wastes into the water, and ballast water management. Port state regulation significantly affects the ownership and operation of vessels, as it commonly is more stringent than international rules and standards. This is the case particularly in the United States and, increasingly, in Europe. And, non-compliances with such laws and regulations can give rise to civil or criminal liability, and/or vessel detentions in the jurisdictions in which we operate.
Our vessels are subject to scheduled and unscheduled inspections by regulatory and enforcement authorities, as well as private maritime industry entities. This includes inspections by Port State Control authorities, including the U.S. Coast Guard, harbor masters or equivalent entities, classification societies, flag Administration (country in which the vessel is registered), charterers, and terminal operators. Certain of these entities require vessel owners to obtain permits, licenses, and certificates for the operation of their vessels. Failure to maintain necessary permits or approvals could require a vessel owner to incur substantial costs or temporarily suspend operation of one or more of its vessels.
Heightened levels of environmental and quality concerns among insurance underwriters, regulators, and charterers continue to lead to greater inspection and safety requirements on all vessels and may accelerate the scrapping of older vessels throughout the industry. Increasing environmental concerns have created a demand for vessels that conform to stricter environmental standards. Vessel owners are required to maintain operating standards for all vessels that will emphasize operational safety, quality maintenance, continuous training of officers and crews, and compliance with U.S. and international regulations.
The legal requirements and maritime industry standards to which we and our vessels are subject are set forth below, along with the risks associated with such requirements and standards. We may be required to make substantial capital and other expenditures to ensure that we remain in compliance with these requirements and standards, as well as with standards imposed by our customers, including costs for ship modifications and changes in operating procedures. We also maintain insurance coverage against pollution liability risks for all of our vessels in the amount of $1.0 billion in the aggregate for any one event. The insured risks include penalties and fines, as well as civil liabilities and expenses resulting from accidental pollution. However, this insurance coverage is subject to exclusions, deductibles, and other terms and conditions. And, claims relating to pollution incidents for knowing violations of U.S. environmental laws or the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships may be considered by our protection and indemnity associations on a discretionary basis only. If any liabilities or expenses fall within an exclusion from coverage, or if damages from a catastrophic incident exceed the aggregate liability of $1.0 billion for any one event, our cash flow, profitability and financial position would be adversely impacted.
Because international conventions, laws, regulations, and other requirements are often revised, we cannot predict the ultimate cost of compliance or the impact on the fair market price or useful life of our vessels. Nor can we assure that our vessels will be able to attain and maintain certifications of compliance with various regulatory requirements.
Comparably, governmental regulation of the shipping industry, particularly in the areas of safety and environmental requirements, can be expected to become stricter in the future. We believe that the heightened environmental, quality, and security concerns of insurance underwriters, regulators, and charterers will lead to additional requirements, including enhanced risk assessment and security requirements, greater inspection and safety requirements, and heightened due diligence obligations. We also may be required to take certain of our vessels out of service for extended periods of time to address changing legal requirements, which would result in losses of revenues. In the future, market conditions may not justify these expenditures or enable us to operate our vessels, particularly older vessels, profitably during the remainder of their economic lives. This could lead to significant asset write-downs.
Specific examples of expected changes that could have a significant, and potentially material, impact on our business include:
|•||Limitations on sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from ships could cause increased demand and higher prices for low sulfur fuel due to supply constraints, as well as significant cost increases due to the implementations of measures such as fuel switching, vessel modifications such as adding distillate fuel storage capacity, or installation of exhaust gas cleaning systems or scrubbers;|
|•||Environmental requirements can affect the resale value or useful lives of our vessels, require a reduction in cargo capacity, vessel modifications or operational changes or restrictions, lead to decreased availability of, or more costly insurance coverage for, environmental matters or result in the denial of access to certain jurisdictional waters or ports.|
|•||Under local and national laws, as well as international treaties and conventions, we could incur material liabilities, including cleanup obligations and claims for natural resource damages, personal injury and/or property damages in the event that there is a release of petroleum or other hazardous materials from our vessels or otherwise in connection with our operations.|
Climate change and government laws and regulations related to climate change could negatively impact our financial condition.
We are and will be, directly and indirectly, subject to the effects of climate change and may, directly or indirectly, be affected by local and national laws, as well as international treaties and conventions, and implementing regulations related to climate change. Any passage of climate control treaties, legislation, or other regulatory initiatives by the IMO, the European Union, the United States or other countries where we operate that restricts emissions of greenhouse gases (“GHGs”) could require us to make significant financial expenditures that we cannot predict with certainty at this time. This could include, for example, the adoption of regulatory frameworks to reduce GHG emissions, such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen oxides. The climate change efforts undertaken to date are detailed below.
We cannot predict with any degree of certainty what effect, if any, possible climate change and legal requirements relating to climate change will have on our operations. However, we believe that climate change, including the possible increases in severe weather events, and legal requirements relating to climate change may affect, directly or indirectly, (i) the cost of the vessels we may acquire in the future, (ii) our ability to continue to operate as we have in the past, (iii) the cost of operating our vessels, and (iv) insurance premiums and deductibles, and the availability of insurance coverage. As a result, our financial condition could be materially impacted by climate change and related legal requirements.
We are subject to vessel security regulations and we incur costs to comply with adopted regulations. We may be subject to costs to comply with similar regulations that may be adopted in the future in response to terrorism.
We are subject to local and national laws, as well as international treaties and conventions, including in the United States, intended to enhance and ensure vessel security. Navios Acquisition has and will continue to implement the various security measures addressed by all applicable laws and will take measures for our vessels or vessels that we charter to attain compliance with all applicable security requirements within the prescribed time periods. Although management does not believe these additional requirements will have a material financial impact on our operations, there can be no assurance that there will not be an interruption in operations to bring vessels into compliance with the applicable requirements and any such interruption could cause a decrease in charter revenues. Furthermore, additional security measures could be required in the future that could have significant financial impact on us.
Our international activities increase the compliance risks associated with economic and trade sanctions imposed by the U.S., the EU and other jurisdictions/authorities.
Our international operations and activities could expose us to risks associated with trade and economic sanctions prohibitions or other restrictions imposed by the U.S. or other governments or organizations, including the United Nations, the EU and its member countries. Under economic and trade sanctions laws, governments may seek to impose modifications to, prohibitions/restrictions on business practices and activities, and modifications to compliance programs, which may increase compliance costs, and, in the event of a violation, may subject us to fines and other penalties. To reduce the risk of violating economic sanctions, we have a policy of compliance with applicable economic sanctions laws and have implemented and continue to implement and diligently follow compliance procedures to avoid economic sanctions violations.
Considering U.S. as well as EU sanctions and the nature of our business, there is a sanctions risk for us due to the worldwide trade of our vessels, which we seek to minimize by the implementation of our corporate Economic Sanctions Compliance Policy and Procedures and our compliance with all applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations. Although we intend to maintain such Economic Sanctions Compliance Policy and Procedures, there can be no assurance that we will be in compliance in the future, particularly as the scope of certain laws may be unclear and may be subject to changing interpretations, and the law may change. Moreover, despite, for example, relevant provisions in charter parties forbidding the use of our vessels in trade that would violate economic sanctions, our charterers may nevertheless violate applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations and those violations could in turn negatively affect our reputation and be imputed to us. We constantly monitor developments in the U.S., the E.U. and other jurisdictions that maintain economic sanctions against Iran, Russian entities, Venezuela, other countries, and other sanctions targets, including developments in implementation and enforcement of such sanctions programs. Expansion of sanctions programs, embargoes and other restrictions in the future (including additional designations of countries and persons subject to sanctions), or modifications in how existing sanctions are interpreted or enforced, could prevent our vessels from calling in ports in sanctioned countries or could limit their cargoes.
Given our relationship with Navios Holdings (and/or its affiliates) and the Manager, we cannot give any assurance that an adverse finding against Navios Holdings (and/or its affiliates) and the Manager by a governmental or legal authority or others with respect to the matters discussed herein or any future matter related to regulatory compliance by Navios Holdings and the Manager will not have a material adverse impact on our business, reputation or the market price or trading of our common stock.
If any of the risks described above materialize, it could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
For a description of the economic and trade sanctions and other compliance requirements under which we operate please see “Item 4. Information on the Company. B. Business Overview - Sanction and Compliance”
We could be materially adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act, and anti-corruption laws in other applicable jurisdictions.
As an international shipping company, we may operate in countries known to have a reputation for corruption. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (the “FCPA”) and other anti-corruption laws and regulations in applicable jurisdictions generally prohibit companies registered with the SEC and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Under the FCPA, U.S. companies may be held liable for some actions taken by strategic or local partners or representatives. Legislation in other countries includes the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 (the “U.K. Bribery Act”) which is broader in scope than the FCPA because it does not contain an exception for facilitation payments. We and our customers may be subject to these and similar anti-corruption laws in other applicable jurisdictions. Failure to comply with legal requirements could expose us to civil and/or criminal penalties, including fines, prosecution and significant reputational damage, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business and the results of operations, including our relationships with our customers, and our financial results. Compliance with the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act and other applicable anti-corruption laws and related regulations and policies imposes potentially significant costs and operational burdens on us. Moreover, the compliance and monitoring mechanisms that we have in place including our Code of Ethics and our anti-bribery and anti-corruption policy, may not adequately prevent or detect all possible violations under applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption legislation.
Increased inspection procedures and tighter import and export controls could increase costs and disrupt our business.
International shipping is subject to various security and customs inspections and related procedures in countries of origin and destination. Inspection procedures can result in the seizure of contents of vessels, delays in the loading, offloading or delivery and the levying of customs, duties, fines and other penalties.
It is possible that changes to inspection procedures could impose additional financial and legal obligations on us. Furthermore, changes to inspection procedures could also impose additional costs and obligations on our future customers and may, in certain cases, render the shipment of certain types of cargo impractical. Any such changes or developments may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
A failure to pass inspection by classification societies could result in our vessels becoming unemployable unless and until they pass inspection, resulting in a loss of revenues from such vessels for that period and a corresponding decrease in operating cash flows.
The hull and machinery of every commercial vessel must be inspected and approved by a classification society authorized by its country of registry. The classification society confirms compliance with the applicable classification society, rules and regulations of the country of registry of the vessel and with SOLAS (as defined below). A vessel must undergo an annual survey, an intermediate survey and a special survey. In lieu of a special survey, a vessel’s machinery may be on a continuous survey cycle, under which the machinery would be surveyed periodically over a five-year period. Every vessel is also required to be examined during an out-of-service period every two to three years for inspection of the underwater parts of such vessel. If any of our vessels fail any annual survey, intermediate survey, or special survey, the vessel may be unable to trade between ports and, therefore, would be unemployable, potentially causing a negative impact on our revenues due to the loss of revenues from such vessel until it was able to trade again. Further, if any vessel fails a classification survey and the condition giving rise to the failure is not cured within a reasonable time, the vessel may lose coverage under various insurance programs, including hull & machinery insurance and/or protection & indemnity insurance.
The operation of ocean-going vessels entails the possibility of marine disasters, including damage or destruction of a vessel due to accident, the loss of a vessel due to piracy, terrorism or political conflict, damage or destruction of cargo and similar events that are inherent operational risks of the tanker industry and may cause a loss of revenue from affected vessels and damage to our business reputation and condition, which may in turn lead to loss of business.
The operation of ocean-going vessels entails certain inherent risks that may adversely affect our business and reputation. Our vessels and their cargoes are at risk of being damaged or lost due to events such as:
|•||damage or destruction of a vessel due to marine disaster such as a collision;|
|•||the loss of a vessel or its cargo due to piracy and terrorism;|
|•||cargo and property losses or damage as a result of the foregoing or human error, mechanical failure, grounding, fire, explosions and bad weather;|
|•||environmental accidents as a result of the foregoing; and|
|•||business interruptions and delivery delays caused by mechanical failure, human error, epidemics, acts of piracy, war, terrorism, political action in various countries, labor strikes, potential government expropriation of our vessels or adverse weather conditions.|
In addition, increased operational risks arise as a consequence of the complex nature of the crude oil, product and chemical tanker industry, the nature of services required to support the industry, including maintenance and repair services, and the mechanical complexity of the tankers themselves. Compared to other types of vessels, tankers are exposed to a higher risk of damage and loss by fire, whether ignited by a terrorist attack, collision or other cause, due to the high flammability and high volume of the oil transported in tankers. Damage and loss could also arise as a consequence of a failure in the services required to support the industry, for example, due to inadequate dredging. Inherent risks also arise due to the nature of the product transported by our vessels. Any damage to, or accident involving, our vessels while carrying crude oil could give rise to environmental damage or lead to other adverse consequences. Each of these inherent risks may also result in death or injury to persons, loss of revenues or property, higher insurance rates, damage to our customer relationships, delay or rerouting.
Any of these circumstances or events could substantially increase our costs. For example, the costs of replacing a vessel or cleaning up environmental damage could substantially lower our revenues by taking vessels out of operation permanently or for periods of time. Furthermore, the involvement of our vessels in a disaster or delays in delivery, damage or the loss of cargo may harm our reputation as a safe and reliable vessel operator and cause us to lose business. Our vessels could be arrested by maritime claimants, which could result in the interruption of business and decrease revenue and lower profitability.
Some of these inherent risks could result in significant damage, such as marine disaster or environmental incidents, and any resulting legal proceedings may be complex, lengthy, costly and, if decided against us, any of these proceedings or other proceedings involving similar claims or claims for substantial damages may harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial position. In addition, the legal systems and law enforcement mechanisms in certain countries in which we operate may expose us to risk and uncertainty. Further, we may be required to devote substantial time and cost defending these proceedings, which could divert attention from management of our business. Crew members, tort claimants, claimants for breach of certain maritime contracts, vessel mortgagees, suppliers of goods and services to a vessel, shippers of cargo and other persons may be entitled to a maritime lien against a vessel for unsatisfied debts, claims or damages, and in many circumstances a maritime lien holder may enforce its lien by arresting a vessel through court processes. Additionally, in certain jurisdictions, such as South Africa, under the “sister ship” theory of liability, a claimant may arrest not only the vessel with respect to which the claimant’s lien has arisen, but also any “associated” vessel owned or controlled by the legal or beneficial owner of that vessel. If any vessel ultimately owned and operated by us is “arrested,” this could result in a material loss of revenues, or require us to pay substantial amounts to have the arrest lifted.
Any of these factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions and results of operations.
The smuggling of drugs or other contraband onto our vessels may lead to governmental claims against us.
We expect that our vessels will call in ports where smugglers may attempt to hide drugs and other contraband on vessels, with or without the knowledge of crew members. To the extent our vessels are found with contraband, whether inside or attached to the hull of our vessel and whether with or without the knowledge of any of our crew, we may face governmental or other regulatory claims which could have an adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. Under some jurisdictions, vessels used for the conveyance of illegal drugs could result in forfeiture of the vessel to the government of such jurisdiction.
Security breaches and disruptions to our information technology infrastructure could interfere with our operations and expose us to liability which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
In the ordinary course of business, we rely on information technology networks and systems to process, transmit, and store electronic information, and to manage or support a variety of business processes and activities. Additionally, we collect and store certain data, including proprietary business information and customer and employee data, and may have access to other confidential information in the ordinary course of our business. Despite our cybersecurity measures, which includes active monitoring, training, reporting and other activities designed to protect and secure our data, our information technology networks and infrastructure may be vulnerable to damage, disruptions, or shutdowns due to attack by hackers or breaches, employee error or malfeasance, data leakage, power outages, computer viruses and malware, telecommunication or utility failures, systems failures, natural disasters, or other catastrophic events. Any such events could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability or penalties under privacy or other laws, disruption in operations, and damage to our reputation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels have increased in frequency and magnitude, which could adversely affect our business.
Acts of piracy have historically affected ocean-going vessels trading in certain regions of the world, such as the South China Sea and the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia. Piracy continues to occur in the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia and increasingly in the Gulf of Guinea. Acts of piracy are a material risk to the shipping industry. Our vessels regularly travel through regions where pirates are active. In January 2014, the Nave Atropos, a vessel owned by us, came under attack from a pirate action group in international waters off the coast of Yemen and in February 2016, the Nave Jupiter, a vessel also owned by us, came under attack from pirate action groups on her way out from her loading terminal about 50 nautical miles off Bayelsa, Nigeria. In both instances, the crew and the on-board security team successfully implemented the counter piracy action plan and standard operating procedures to deter the attack with no consequences to the vessels or their crew. In December 2019, the Nave Constellation was boarded by armed pirates whilst sailing from Bonny, Nigeria. 19 crewmembers were taken as hostages and were released after 18 days of captivity. Piracy attacks have resulted in certain regions being characterized by insurers as “war risk” zones or Joint War Committee “war and strikes” listed areas.
Premiums payable for insurance coverage could increase significantly and insurance coverage may be more difficult to obtain. Crew costs, including those due to employing onboard security guards, could increase in such circumstances. While the use of security guards is intended to deter and prevent the hijacking of our vessels, it could also increase our risk of liability for death or injury to persons or damage to personal property. In addition, while we believe the charterer remains liable for charter payments when a vessel is seized by pirates, the charterer may dispute this and withhold charter hire until the vessel is released. Although we insure against these losses to the extent practicable, the risk remains of uninsured losses which could significantly affect our business. Costs are incurred in taking additional security measures in accordance with Best Management Practices to Deter Piracy, notably those contained in the BMP3 industry standard. A number of flag states have signed the 2009 New York Declaration, which expresses commitment to Best Management Practices in relation to piracy and calls for compliance with them as an essential part of compliance with the ISPS Code. A charterer may also claim that a vessel seized by pirates was not “on-hire” for a certain number of days and it is therefore entitled to cancel the charter party, a claim that we would dispute. We may not be adequately insured to cover losses from these incidents, which could have a material adverse effect on us, our results of operations, financial condition and ability to pay dividends. In addition, detention hijacking as a result of an act of piracy against our vessels, an increase in cost, or unavailability of insurance for our vessels, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels could adversely affect our business and operations.
Governments could requisition vessels of a target business during a period of war or emergency, resulting in a loss of earnings.
A government could requisition a business’ vessels for title or hire. Requisition for title occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and becomes her owner, while requisition for hire occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and effectively becomes her charterer at dictated charter rates. Generally, requisitions occur during periods of war or emergency, although governments may elect to requisition vessels in other circumstances. Although we would be entitled to compensation in the event of a requisition of one or more of our vessels, requisition of one or more of our vessels would have a substantial negative effect on us as we would potentially lose all revenues and earnings from the requisitioned vessels and permanently lose the vessels. Such losses might be partially offset if the requisitioning government compensated us for the requisition.
Disruptions in global financial markets and the resulting governmental action, political and governmental instability, terrorist attacks, regional armed conflicts, general political unrest, the emergence of a pandemic crisis, could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Terrorist attacks in certain parts of the world and the continuing response of the United States and other countries to these attacks, as well as the threat of future terrorist attacks, may continue to cause uncertainty and volatility in the world financial markets and may affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. The refugee crisis in the European Union, the continuing war in Syria and presence of terrorist organizations in the Middle East, conflicts and turmoil in Yemen, Iraq, Afghanistan and Iran, general political unrest in Ukraine, political tension, continuing concerns relating to Brexit, concerns regarding epidemics and pandemics, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, and other viral outbreaks or conflicts in the Asia Pacific Region such as in the South China Sea, mainland China and North Korea have led to increased volatility in global credit and equity markets. In addition, global financial markets and economic conditions have been severely disrupted and volatile in recent years and remain subject to significant vulnerabilities, such as the deterioration of fiscal balances and the rapid accumulation of public debt, continued deleveraging in the banking sector and a limited supply of credit. Credit markets as well as the debt and equity capital markets were exceedingly distressed during 2008 and 2009 and have been volatile since that time. The resulting uncertainty and volatility in the global financial markets may accordingly affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. These uncertainties, as well as future hostilities or other political instability in regions where our vessels trade, could also affect trade volumes and patterns and adversely affect our operations, and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows and cash available for distributions to our shareholders and repurchases of common shares.
Further, as a result of the ongoing political, social and economic turmoil in Greece resulting from the sovereign debt crisis and the influx of refugees from Syria and other areas, the operations of our Manager located in Greece may be subjected to new regulations and potential shift in government policies that may require us to incur new or additional compliance or other administrative costs and may require the payment of new taxes or other fees. We also face the risk that strikes, work stoppages, civil unrest and violence within Greece may disrupt the shoreside operations of our Manager located in Greece.
Specifically, these issues, along with the re-pricing of credit risk and the difficulties currently experienced by financial institutions, have made, and will likely continue to make, it difficult to obtain financing. As a result of the disruptions in the credit markets and higher capital requirements, many lenders have increased margins on lending rates, enacted tighter lending standards, required more restrictive terms (including higher collateral ratios for advances, shorter maturities and smaller loan amounts), or have refused to refinance existing debt at all.
Furthermore, certain banks that have historically been significant lenders to the shipping industry have reduced or ceased lending activities in the shipping industry. Additional tightening of capital requirements and the resulting policies adopted by lenders, could further reduce lending activities. We may experience difficulties obtaining financing commitments or be unable to fully draw on the capacity under our committed term loans in the future if our lenders are unwilling to extend financing to us or unable to meet their funding obligations due to their own liquidity, capital or solvency issues. We cannot be certain that financing will be available on acceptable terms or at all. If financing is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to meet our future obligations as they come due. Our failure to obtain such funds could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our shareholders and repurchases of common shares. In the absence of available financing, we also may be unable to take advantage of business opportunities or respond to competitive pressures.
Our financial and operating performance may be adversely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. .
Our business could be materially and adversely affected by ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic or other epidemics or pandemics could potentially result in delayed deliveries of our vessels under construction, disrupt our operations and significantly affect global markets, affecting the demand for our services, global demand for crude oil and petroleum products as well as the price of international freights and hires. If the effect of the coronavirus is ongoing, we may be unable to charter our vessels at the rates or for the length of time we currently expect. The effects of the coronavirus remain uncertain, and should customers be under financial pressure this could negatively affect our charterers' willingness to perform their obligations under our time charters. The loss or termination of any of our time charters or a decline in payments under our time charters, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as our cash flows, including cash available for distributions to our stockholders.
In addition, certain countries have introduced travel restrictions and adopted certain hygiene measures, including quarantining. This has affected the process of construction and repair- of vessels, as well as the presence of workers in shipyards and seafarers. Prolonged restrictive measures in order to control the COVID-19 pandemic or other adverse global public health developments may have a material and adverse effect on our business operations and demand for our vessels generally. Furthermore, the global recession caused by the pandemic could be prolonged and could also severely affect financing institutions. If any such impact on the financial system is not addressed, we may find it difficult to finance loans that are maturing or to obtain financing for new projects, thus materially affecting our financial position.
The extent of the COVID-19 outbreak’s effect on our operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including the duration, spread and intensity of the outbreak, any resurgence or mutation of the virus, the availability of vaccines and their global deployment, the development of effective treatments, the imposition of effective public safety and other protective measures and the public’s response to such measures. There continues to be a high level of uncertainty relating to how the pandemic will evolve, how governments and consumers will react and progress on the approval and distribution of vaccines, all of which are uncertain and difficult to predict considering the rapidly evolving landscape. As a result, the ultimate severity of the COVID-19 outbreak is uncertain at this time and therefore we cannot predict the impact it may have on our future operations, which impact could be material and adverse, particularly if the pandemic continues to evolve into a severe worldwide health crisis.
At present, it is not possible to ascertain the overall impact of COVID-19 on our business. However, the occurrence of any of the foregoing events or other epidemics or an increase in the severity or duration of the COVID-19 or other epidemics could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition, value of our vessels, and ability to pay dividends.
As international tankers companies often generate most or all of their revenues in U.S. dollars but incur a portion of their expenses in other currencies, exchange rate fluctuations could cause us to suffer exchange rate losses, thereby increasing expenses and reducing income.
We engage in worldwide commerce with a variety of entities. Although our operations may expose us to certain levels of foreign currency risk, our transactions are predominantly U.S. dollar-denominated. Transactions in currencies other than the functional currency are translated at the exchange rate in effect at the date of each transaction. Expenses incurred in foreign currencies against which the U.S. dollar falls in value can increase, decreasing our income. A greater percentage of our transactions and expenses in the future may be denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. As part of our overall risk management policy, we will attempt to hedge these risks in exchange rate fluctuations from time to time. We may not always be successful in such hedging activities and, as a result, our operating results could suffer as a result of un-hedged losses incurred as a result of exchange rate fluctuations. For example, as of December 31, 2020, the value of the U.S. dollar as compared to the Euro decreased by approximately 11.0% compared with the respective value as of December 31, 2019. A greater percentage of our transactions and expenses in the future may be denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.
Labor interruptions and problems could disrupt our business.
Our vessels are manned by masters, officers and crews that are employed by third parties. If not resolved in a timely and cost-effective manner, industrial action or other labor unrest could prevent or hinder our operations from being carried out normally and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition.
Our right to be indemnified against certain damages may be inadequate.
The Securities Purchase Agreement for the VLCC vessels acquired through the VLCC acquisition completed in 2010 has a cap on indemnity obligations, subject to certain exceptions, of $58.7 million. Although we performed substantial due diligence with respect to the VLCC acquisition, there can be no assurance that there will not be undisclosed liabilities or other matters not discovered in the course of such due diligence and the $58.7 million indemnity may be inadequate to cover these or other damages related to breaches of such agreement. In addition, since the return to Navios Acquisition of 14,477 shares on November 4, 2011 in settlement of claims relating to representation and warranties attributable to the sellers and the return of the balance of the escrow shares to the sellers, it may be difficult to enforce an arbitration award for any amount of damages.
Risks Related to Our Relationship with the Manager
We are dependent on the Manager for the technical, commercial and administrative management of our fleet and the technical management of a portion of our fleet.
Pursuant to our Management Agreement we are provided with services essential to the business of our vessels, including vessel maintenance, crewing, purchasing, shipyard supervision, insurance and assistance with vessel regulatory compliance, by our Manager. Our operational success and ability to execute our strategy will depend significantly upon the satisfactory performance of the aforementioned services by our Manager and on an interim basis by other third party managers. Our Manager’s failure to perform these services satisfactorily could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Although we may have rights against the Manager if it defaults on its obligations to us, you will have no recourse directly against it. Further, we expect that we will need to seek approval from our respective lenders to change our Manager. The Manager may have responsibilities and relationships to owners other than Navios Acquisition that could create conflicts of interest between us and the Manager.
Navios Holdings, Navios Maritime Partners L.P. (“Navios Partners”) and Navios Acquisition share certain officers and directors who may not be able to devote sufficient time to our affairs, which may affect our ability to conduct operations and generate revenues.
Some of our officers provide services to Navios Holdings, and Navios Partners and their affiliates. For instance, Angeliki Frangou is an officer and director of Navios Holdings, Navios Acquisition, and Navios Partners. As a result, demands for our officers’ time and attention as required from Navios Acquisition, Navios Partners, and Navios Holdings may conflict from time to time and her limited devotion of time and attention to our business may hurt the operation of our business.
The loss of key members of our senior management team could disrupt the management of our business.
We believe that our success depends on the continued contributions of the members of our senior management team, including Angeliki Frangou, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. The loss of the services of Ms. Frangou or one of our other executive officers or senior management members could impair our ability to identify and secure new charter contracts, to maintain good customer and banking relations and to otherwise manage our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance and our ability to compete.
Navios Holdings, our affiliate and a greater than 5% holder of our common stock, Angeliki Frangou, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, and certain of our officers and directors collectively own a substantial interest in us, and, as a result, may influence certain actions requiring stockholder vote.
As of April 20, 2021, Navios Holdings, Angeliki Frangou, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, and certain of our officers and directors beneficially own, in the aggregate, 32.7% of our issued and outstanding shares of common stock, which permits them to influence the outcome of effectively all matters requiring approval by our stockholders at such time, including the election of directors and approval of significant corporate transactions. Furthermore, if Navios Holdings and Ms. Frangou or an affiliate ceases to hold a minimum of 20% of our common stock, then we will be in default under our credit facilities.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock and Capital Structure
We are incorporated in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, a country that does not have a well-developed body of corporate law, which may negatively affect the ability of public stockholders to protect their interests.
Our corporate affairs are governed by our amended and restated articles of incorporation and bylaws, and by the Marshall Islands Business Corporations Act (the “BCA”). The provisions of the BCA resemble provisions of the corporation laws of a number of states in the United States. However, there have been few judicial cases in the Republic of the Marshall Islands interpreting the BCA. The rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors under the law of the Republic of the Marshall Islands are not as clearly established as the rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors under statutes or judicial precedent in existence in certain United States jurisdictions. Stockholder rights may differ as well. While the BCA does specifically incorporate the non-statutory law, or judicial case law, of the State of Delaware and other states with substantially similar legislative provisions, public stockholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions by the management, directors or controlling stockholders than would stockholders of a corporation incorporated in a United States jurisdiction.
We are incorporated under the laws of the Marshall Islands and most of our directors and officers are non-U.S. residents, and although you may bring an original action in the courts of the Marshall Islands or obtain a judgment against us, our directors or our management based on U.S. laws in the event you believe your rights as a stockholder have been infringed, it may be difficult to enforce judgments against us, our directors or our management.
We are incorporated under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and all of our assets are located outside of the United States. Our business will be operated primarily from our offices in the Cayman Islands. In addition, most of our directors and officers are non-residents of the United States, and all or a substantial portion of the assets of these nonresidents are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States if you believe that your rights have been infringed under securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Marshall Islands and of other jurisdictions may prevent or restrict you from enforcing a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers. Although you may bring an original action against us or our affiliates in the courts of the Marshall Islands based on U.S. laws, and the courts of the Marshall Islands may impose civil liability, including monetary damages, against us or our affiliates for a cause of action arising under Marshall Islands law, it may impracticable for you to do so given the geographic location of the Marshall Islands.
Since we are a foreign private issuer, we are not subject to certain SEC regulations that companies incorporated in the United States would be subject to.
We are a “foreign private issuer” within the meaning of the rules promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). As such, we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to United States public companies including:
|•||the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K;|
|•||the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;|
|•||the provisions of Regulation FD of the Exchange Act aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information; and|
|•||the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and establishing insider liability for profits realized from any “short-swing” trading transaction (i.e., a purchase and sale, or sale and purchase, of the issuer’s equity securities within less than six months).|
Accordingly, investors in our common stock may not be able to obtain all of the information of the type described above, and our stockholders may not be afforded the same protections or information generally available to investors holding shares in public companies in the United States.
Anti-takeover provisions in our amended and restated articles of incorporation could make it difficult for our stockholders to replace or remove our current board of directors or could have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing a merger or acquisition, which could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
Several provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation and bylaws could make it difficult for our stockholders to change the composition of our board of directors in any one year, preventing them from changing the composition of our management. In addition, the same provisions may discourage, delay or prevent a merger or acquisition that stockholders may consider favorable. These provisions include those that:
|•||authorize our board of directors to issue “blank check” preferred stock without stockholder approval;|
|•||provide for a classified board of directors with staggered, three-year terms;|
|•||require a super-majority vote in order to amend the provisions regarding our classified board of directors with staggered, three-year terms; and|
|•||prohibit cumulative voting in the election of directors.|
These anti-takeover provisions could substantially impede the ability of stockholders to benefit from a change in control and, as a result, may adversely affect the market price of our common stock and your ability to realize any potential change of control premium.
Registration rights held by our initial stockholders and others may have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
Certain stockholders, which include Navios Holdings and certain members of the management of Navios Acquisition, Navios Holdings and Navios Partners, are entitled to demand that we register the resale of their common stock totaling approximately 4,488,033 shares. If these stockholders exercise their registration rights with respect to all of their shares of common stock, the presence of these shares of common stock as eligible for trading in the public market may have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
The New York Stock Exchange may delist our securities from quotation on its exchange, which could limit your ability to trade our securities and subject us to additional trading restrictions.
Our securities are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”), a national securities exchange. The NYSE minimum listing standards require that we meet certain requirements relating to stockholders’ equity, number of round-lot holders, market capitalization, aggregate market value of publicly held shares and distribution requirements.
Although we currently satisfy the NYSE minimum listing standards, we cannot assure you that our securities will continue to be listed on NYSE in the future. If NYSE delists our securities from trading on its exchange, we could face significant material adverse consequences, including:
|•||a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;|
|•||a limited amount of news and analyst coverage for us;|
|•||a decreased ability for us to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future;|
|•||limited liquidity for our stockholders due to thin trading; and|
|•||loss of our tax exemption under Section 883 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), loss of preferential capital gain tax rates for certain dividends received by certain non-corporate U.S. holders and loss of “mark-to-market” election by U.S. holders in the event we are treated as a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”).|
U.S. tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company,” which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders.
If either (1) at least 75% of our gross income for any taxable year consists of certain types of “passive income” or (2) at least 50% of the average value of our assets produce or are held for the production of those types of “passive income”, then we will be treated as a “passive foreign investment company,” (“PFIC”), for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Based on our current and projected methods of operations, and an opinion of counsel, we believe that we were not a PFIC for the 2011 through 2020 taxable years (we were treated as a PFIC for the 2008 through 2010 taxable years), and we do not believe that we will be a PFIC for 2021 and subsequent taxable years. For purposes of these tests, “passive income” includes dividends, interest, and gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties that are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business. For purposes of these tests, income derived from the performance of services does not constitute “passive income”. U.S. stockholders of a PFIC may be subject to a disadvantageous U.S. federal income tax regime with respect to the income derived by the PFIC, the distributions they receive from the PFIC and the gain, if any, they derive from the sale or other disposition of their shares in the PFIC.
For post-2010 taxable years, our U.S. counsel, Thompson Hine LLP, is of the opinion that (1) the income we receive from the time chartering activities and assets engaged in generating such income should not be treated as passive income or assets, respectively, and (2) so long as our income from time charters exceeds 25.0% of our gross income for each taxable year after our 2010 taxable year and the value of our vessels contracted under time charters exceeds 50.0% of the average value of our assets for each taxable year after our 2010 taxable year, we should not be a PFIC for any taxable year after our 2010 taxable year. This opinion is based on representations and projections provided to our counsel by us regarding our assets, income and charters, and its validity is conditioned on the accuracy of such representations and projections.
We may have to pay tax on United States source income, which would reduce our earnings.
Under the Code, 50% of the gross transportation income of a vessel-owning or chartering corporation, such as us and our subsidiaries, that is attributable to transportation that either begins or ends, but that does not both begin and end, in the United States is characterized as U.S. Source International Transportation Income and such U.S. Source International Transportation Income is generally subject to a 4% U.S. federal income tax without allowance for deduction or, if such U.S. Source International Transportation Income is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, U.S. federal corporate income tax (presently imposed at 21.0% rate) as well as a branch profits tax (presently imposed at a 30.0% rate on effectively connected earnings), unless the non-U.S. corporation qualifies for exemption from tax under Section 883 of the Code and the treasury regulations promulgated thereunder (“Treasury Regulations”). In general, the exemption from U.S. federal income taxation under Section 883 of the Code provides that if a non-U.S. corporation satisfies the requirements of Section 883 of the Code and the Treasury Regulations, it will not be subject to the net basis and branch profit taxes or the 4% gross basis tax on its U.S. Source International Transportation Income.
We expect that we and each of our vessel-owning subsidiaries have qualified for this statutory tax exemption and we will take this position for U.S. federal income tax return reporting purposes for our 2020 taxable year. However, the delisting of our securities from quotation on the NYSE (or other factual circumstances beyond our control) could cause us to lose the benefit of this tax exemption and thereby become subject to U.S. federal income tax on our U.S. Source International Transportation Income. See “— Risks Related to our Common Stock and Capital Structure—The New York Stock Exchange may delist our securities from quotation on its exchange, which could limit your ability to trade our securities and subject us to additional trading restrictions.”
If we or our vessel-owning subsidiaries are not entitled to this exemption under Section 883 for any taxable year, we or our subsidiaries would be subject for those years to a 4% U.S. federal income tax (without allowance for deduction) on our U.S. Source International Transportation Income. The imposition of this taxation could have a negative effect on our business and would result in decreased earnings.
Actions taken by our shareholders could result in our being treated as a “controlled foreign corporation,” which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to certain U.S. holders.
Although we believe that Navios Acquisition likely was not a controlled foreign corporation (a “CFC”) as of December 31, 2020, or at any time during 2020, tax rules enacted by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, including the imposition of so-called “downward attribution” for purposes of determining whether a non-U.S. corporation is a CFC, may result in Navios Acquisition being treated as a CFC for U.S. federal income tax purposes in the future. Through downward attribution, U.S. subsidiaries of Navios Holdings are treated as constructive owners of the equity of Navios Acquisition for purposes of determining whether Navios Acquisition is a CFC. If, in the future, U.S. holders (including U.S. subsidiaries of Navios Holdings, as discussed above) that each own 10.0% or more (by vote or value) of the equity of Navios Acquisition own in the aggregate more than 50% of the equity of Navios Acquisition (by vote or value), in each case, directly, indirectly, or constructively, Navios Acquisition should become a CFC.
U.S. holders who at all times own less than 10% of our equity should not be affected. However, if we were to become a CFC, any U.S. holder owning 10% or more (by vote or value), directly, indirectly, or constructively (but not through downward attribution) of our equity could be subject to U.S. federal income tax in respect of a portion of our earnings. Any U.S. holder of Navios Acquisition that owns 10% or more (by vote or value), directly, indirectly, or constructively, of the equity of Navios Acquisition should consult its own tax advisor regarding U.S. federal tax consequences that may result from Navios Acquisition being treated as a CFC. (see United States Federal Income Taxation of U.S. Holders – Controlled Foreign Corporation).
Other Tax Jurisdictions
In accordance with the currently applicable Greek law, foreign flagged vessels that are managed by Greek or foreign ship management companies having established an office in Greece are subject to duties towards the Greek state which are calculated on the basis of the relevant vessels’ tonnage. The payment of said duties exhausts the tax liability of the foreign ship owning company and the relevant manager against any tax, duty, charge or contribution payable on income from the exploitation of the foreign flagged vessel. In case that tonnage tax and/or similar taxes/duties are paid to the vessel’s flag state, these are deducted from the amount of the duty to be paid in Greece.
Item 4. Information on the Company
|A.||History and development of Navios Acquisition|
Navios Acquisition was formed on March 14, 2008 under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands as a as a corporation under the Marshall Islands Business Corporations Act. Our principal offices are located at Strathvale House, 90 N Church Street, P.O. Box 309, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104 Cayman Islands and our telephone number is +1 345 232 3066.
Navios Acquisition owns a large fleet of modern crude oil, refined petroleum product and chemical tankers providing world-wide marine transportation services. The Company’s strategy is to charter its vessels to international oil companies, refiners and large vessel operators under long, medium and short-term contracts. The Company is committed to providing quality transportation services and developing and maintaining long-term relationships with its customers.
On July 1, 2008, Navios Acquisition completed its initial public offering. On May 28, 2010, Navios Acquisition consummated the vessel acquisition which constituted its initial business combination. Following such transaction, Navios Acquisition commenced its operations as an operating company.
On December 13, 2018, the Company completed the merger (the “Merger”) contemplated by the Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”), dated as of October 7, 2018, by and among Navios Acquisition, its direct wholly-owned subsidiary NMA Sub LLC (“Merger Sub”), Navios Maritime Midstream Partners L.P. (“Navios Midstream”) and Navios Midstream Partners GP LLC (the “NAP General Partner”). Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub merged with and into Navios Midstream, with Navios Midstream surviving as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Navios Acquisition.
On November 22, 2019, an agreement was reached to liquidate Navios Europe I. As a result of the liquidation, which was completed in December 2019 (“Liquidation of Navios Europe I”), Navios Acquisition acquired five vessel owning companies.
On April 21, 2020, an agreement was reached to liquidate Navios Europe II. As a result of the liquidation, which was completed in June 2020 (“Liquidation of Navios Europe II”), Navios Acquisition acquired seven vessel owning companies. The vessels are containerships and meet the criteria to be accounted for as assets held for sale.
As of December 31, 2020, Navios Holdings had 29.4% of the voting power and 29.5% of the economic interest in Navios Acquisition.
As of December 31, 2020, Navios Acquisition had 16,559,481 shares of common stock outstanding.
The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. The address of Navios Acquisition’s internet site is https://www.navios-acquisition.com. Information contained on this website does not constitute part of this report.
Series C Convertible Preferred Stock
On March 30, 2011, pursuant to an Exchange Agreement, Navios Holdings exchanged 511,733 shares of Navios Acquisition’s common stock it held for 1,000 non-voting Series C Convertible Preferred Stock of Navios Acquisition. Each holder of shares of Series C Convertible Preferred Stock was entitled at their option at any time, after March 31, 2013 to convert all or any of the outstanding shares of Series C Convertible Preferred Stock into a number of fully paid and non-assessable shares of Common Stock determined by multiplying each share of Series C Convertible Preferred Stock to be converted by 512, subject to certain limitations. Upon the declaration of a common stock dividend, the holders of the Series C Convertible Preferred Stock were entitled to receive dividends on the Series C Convertible Preferred Stock in an amount equal to the amount that would have been received in the number of shares of Common Stock into which the Shares of Series C Convertible Preferred Stock held by each holder thereof could be converted. For the purpose of calculating earnings / (loss) per share this preferred stock was treated as in-substance common stock and was allocated income / (losses) and considered in the diluted calculation. On February 7, 2019, all of the outstanding Series C convertible Preferred Stock of Navios Acquisition was converted into 511,733 shares of common stock. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, no shares of Series C Convertible Preferred Stock were issued and outstanding.
As of December 31, 2018, the Company’s issued and outstanding preferred stock consisted of the 1,000 shares of Series C Convertible Preferred Stock.
In February 2018, the Board of Directors of Navios Acquisition authorized a stock repurchase program for up to $25.0 million of Navios Acquisition’s common stock, for two years. Stock repurchases were made from time to time for cash in open market transactions at prevailing market prices or in privately negotiated transactions. The timing and amount of repurchases under the program were determined by management based upon market conditions and other factors. Repurchases were made pursuant to a program adopted under Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The program did not require any minimum repurchase or any specific number or amount of shares of common stock and was suspended or reinstated at any time in Navios Acquisition’s discretion and without notice. Repurchases were subject to restrictions under Navios Acquisition’s credit facilities and indenture. The program expired in February 2020. Up to the expiration of the stock repurchase program in February 2020, Navios Acquisition had repurchased 735,251 shares since the program was initiated for approximately $7.5 million.
The Board of Directors of Navios Acquisition previously approved 1-for-15 reverse stock split of its issued and outstanding shares of common stock and on November 9, 2018, the reverse stock split was approved by Navios Acquisition’s stockholders. The reverse stock split was effective on November 14, 2018 and the common stock commenced trading on such date on a split adjusted basis. Please refer to Note 2.
In December 2018, Navios Acquisition authorized and issued in the aggregate 129,269 restricted shares of common stock to its directors and officers. These awards of restricted common stock are based on service conditions only and vest over four years.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company was authorized to issue 250,000,000 shares of $0.0001 par value common stock of which 16,559,481 were issued and outstanding. As of April 20, 2021, there were 16,559,481 shares of common stock issued and outstanding.
In October 2019, Navios Acquisition completed a registered direct offering of 1,875,000 shares of its common stock at $8.00 per share, raising gross proceeds of $15.0 million. Total net proceeds of the above transactions, net of agents’ costs of $0.7 million and offering costs $0.9 million, amounted to $13.4 million.
Continuous Offering Program
On November 29, 2019, Navios Acquisition entered into a Continuous Offering Program Sales Agreement for the issuance and sale from time to time of shares of Navios Acquisition’s common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $25.0 million. The sales were being made pursuant to a prospectus supplement as part of a shelf registration statement which was set to expire in December 2019. Navios Acquisition went effective on a new shelf registration statement which was declared effective on December 23, 2019. Accordingly, an updated Continuous Offering Program Sales Agreement (the “Sales Agreement”) was entered into on December 23, 2019. As before, the Sales Agreement contains, among other things, customary representations, warranties and covenants by Navios Acquisition and indemnification obligations of the parties thereto as well as certain termination rights for such parties. As of December 31, 2020, since the commencement of the program, Navios Acquisition had issued 956,110 shares of common stock and received net proceeds of $5.3 million.
B. Business Overview
Navios Acquisition owns a large fleet of modern crude oil, refined petroleum product and chemical tankers providing worldwide marine transportation services. Our strategy is to charter our vessels to international oil companies, refiners and large vessel operators under long, medium and short-term contracts. We are committed to providing quality transportation services and developing and maintaining long-term relationships with our customers. We believe that the Navios brand will allow us to take advantage of increasing global environmental concerns that have created a demand in the petroleum products/crude oil seaborne transportation industry for vessels and operators that are able to conform to the stringent environmental standards currently being imposed throughout the world.
Navios Acquisition’s Fleet
As of April 20, 2021, our core fleet consisted of a total of 46 double-hulled tanker vessels, aggregating approximately 6.0 million deadweight tons, or dwt. The fleet includes 13 VLCC tankers (over 200,000 dwt per ship) which transport crude oil, including two bareboat chartered-in VLCCs that were delivered on October 28, 2020 and on February 17, 2021, respectively, and two bareboat chartered-in VLCCs expected to be delivered in each of the third quarter of 2021 and the third quarter of 2022, ten Long Range 1 (“LR1”) product tankers (60,000-85,000 dwt per ship), 18 Medium Range 2 (“MR2”) product tankers (47,000-52,000 dwt per ship), three Medium Range one (“MR1”) product tankers (35,000-45,000 dwt per ship) and two chemical tankers (25,000 dwt per ship), which transport refined petroleum products and bulk liquid chemicals. Navios Acquisition also owns five containerships that are accounted for as assets held for sale. All of our vessels are currently chartered-out to quality counterparties with an average remaining charter period of approximately one year. As of April 20, 2021, we had charters covering 78.0% of available days for our core fleet in 2021.
|Vessels||Type||Year built||Dwt||Net Charter Rate (1)||Profit Sharing Arrangements||Charter Expiration Date (2)|
|· Core fleet|
|Owned Vessels of Navios Acquisition|
|Nave Polaris||Chemical Tanker||2011||25,145||Floating Rate (3)||None||July 2021|
|Nave Cosmos||Chemical Tanker||2010||25,130||Floating Rate (3)||None||July 2021|
|Star N||MR1 Product Tanker||2009||37,836||$6,913||
|Hector N||MR1 Product Tanker||2008||38,402||$10,369 (5)||None||July 2021|
|Nave Bellatrix||MR2 Product Tanker||2013||49,999||$11,603 (32)||None||November 2021|
|Nave Orion||MR2 Product Tanker||2013||49,999||$12,898 (6)||None||December 2021|
|Nave Aquila||MR2 Product Tanker||2012||49,991||$12,838(28)||None||November 2021|
|Nave Atria||MR2 Product Tanker||2012||49,992||$14,072(16)||None||October 2021|
|Nave Buena Suerte||VLCC||2011||297,491||$47,906 (9)||As per footnote (9)||June 2025|
|Nave Quasar||VLCC||2010||297,376||$16,788 (10)||As per footnote (10)||February 2023|
|Nave Synergy||VLCC||2010||299,973||$32,588||None||May 2022|
|Nave Spherical||VLCC||2009||297,188||Floating Rate (11)||None||December 2022|
|Nave Neutrino||VLCC||2003||298,287||$24,688||None||May 2021|
|Nave Photon||VLCC||2008||297,395||$47,906 (9)||As per footnote (9)||June 2026|
|Nave Constellation||VLCC||2010||298,000||$ 7,900 (33)||None||June 2021|
|Nave Universe||VLCC||2011||297,066||$17,775(13)||As per footnote (13)||April 2022|
|As per footnote (13)||June 2022|
|Baghdad||VLCC||2020||313,433||$27,816 (29)||None||October 2030|
|Erbil||VLCC||2021||313,486||$27,816 (29)||None||February 2031|
Vessels to be delivered (34)
|Nave Electron||VLCC||Q3 2021||310,000||As per footnote (18), (34)||-||-|
|TBN IV||VLCC||Q3 2022||310,000||As per footnote(34)||-||-|
|Owned Vessels of Navios Midstream|
|Perseus N||MR1 Product Tanker||2009||36,264||$12,146 (14)||None||December 2021|
|Nave Velocity||MR2 Product Tanker||2015||49,999||$12,344 (17)||None||May 2021|
|Nave Sextans||MR2 Product Tanker||2015||49,999||$13,764 (12)||None||April 2022|
|Nave Pyxis||MR2 Product Tanker||2014||49,998||$13,035 (15)||None||July 2021|
|Nave Luminosity||MR2 Product Tanker||2014||49,999||$17,034 (20)||None||December 2021|
|Nave Jupiter||MR2 Product Tanker||2014||49,999||$14,040 (19)||None||September 2021|
|Bougainville||MR2 Product Tanker||2013||50,626||$13,163 (21)||100%||September 2021|
|$16,829 (21)||100%||September 2022|
|$15,600 (26)||100%||September 2023|
|Nave Orbit||MR2 Product Tanker||2009||50,470||$14,000||None||September 2021|
|Nave Equator||MR2 Product Tanker||2009||50,542||$16,250||None||January 2022|
|Nave Equinox||MR2 Product Tanker||2007||50,922||$14,813(22)||ice-transit premium (4)||October 2021|
|Nave Pulsar||MR2 Product Tanker||2007||50,922||$14,072(23)||ice-transit premium (4)||October 2021|
|Nave Dorado||MR2 Product Tanker||2005||47,999||$7,653(30)||None||May 2021|
|Nave Atropos||LR1 Product Tanker||2013||74,695||$14,813||None||April 2022|
|Nave Rigel||LR1 Product Tanker||2013||74,673||$16,088 (24)||None||January 2022|
|Nave Cassiopeia||LR1 Product Tanker||2012||74,711||Floating Rate (8)||None||June 2021|
|Nave Cetus||LR1 Product Tanker||2012||74,581||$16,088 (24)||None||January 2022|
|Nave Ariadne||LR1 Product Tanker||2007||74,671||Floating Rate (25)||None||July 2021|
|Nave Cielo||LR1 Product Tanker||2007||74,671||$12,994||None||April 2022|
|Aurora N||LR1 Product Tanker||2008||63,495||Floating Rate (25)||None||July 2021|
|Lumen N||LR1 Product Tanker||2008||63,599||Floating Rate (25)||None||July 2021|
|Nave Alderamin||MR2 Product Tanker||2013||49,998||$12,898(6)||None||November 2021|
|Nave Capella||MR2 Product Tanker||2013||49,995||$12,898(6)||None||January 2022|
|Nave Titan||MR2 Product Tanker||2013||49,999||$14,072(27)||None||July 2021|
|Nave Estella||LR1 Product Tanker||2012||75,000||$13,234 (7)||None||December 2021|
|Nave Andromeda||LR1 Product Tanker||2011||75,000||Floating Rate (8)||None||June 2021|
· Owned Vessels held for sale
|Acrux N||Container||2010||23,338||$14,813||None||April 2021|
|Fleur N||Container||2012||41,130||$10,369||None||June 2021|
|Ete N||Container||2012||41,139||$9,628||None||May 2021|
|Spectrum N||Container||2009||34,333||$15,800||None||April 2022|
|Vita N||Container||2010||23,359||$8,663||None||April 2021|
(1) Net time charter-out rate per day (net of commissions), presented in U.S. Dollars.
(2) Estimated dates assuming the midpoint or company’s best estimate of the redelivery period by charterers, including owner’s extension options not declared yet.
(3) Rate based on Delta-8 pool earnings.
(4) The premium for the Nave Equinox and the Nave Pulsar when vessels are trading on ice or follow ice breaker is $1,481 per day.
(5) Charterer's option to extend the charter for up to twelve months: a) up to six months at $11,356 net per day; and b) up to six months at $12,591 net per day.
(6) Charterer has the option to charter the vessel for an optional year at a rate of $14,438 net per day.
(7) Charterer has the option to charter the vessel for an optional year at a rate of $14,630 net per day.
(8) Rate based on LR8 pool earnings.
(9) Profit sharing arrangement of 35% above $54,388, 40% above $59,388 and 50% above $69,388.
(10) Contract provides 100% of BITR TD3C-TCE index up to $37,031 and 50% thereafter with $16,788 floor.
(11) Contract provides 100% of BITR TD3C-TCE index plus $5,000 premium. Charterer’s option to extend for one year at TD3C-TCE index plus $1,500 premium.
(12) Charterer's option to extend the charter for up to six months at $15,689 net per day.
(13) Contract provides adjusted BITR TD3C-TCE index up to $38,759 and 50% thereafter with $17,775 floor. Charterer’s option to extend for six months at same terms.
(14) Charterer’s option to extend the charter for six months at $13,825 net per day.
(15) Charterer’s option to extend the charter for six months at $14,023 net per day.
(16) Charterer's option to extend the charter for up to six months at $14,072 net per day.
(17) Charterer's option to extend the charter for up to six months at $13,331 net per day
(18) To take over Nave Photon’s charter of $47,906 net per day from July 1st, 2021 plus profit sharing arrangement of 35% above $54,388, 40% above $59,388 and 50% above $69,388.
(19) Charterer’s option to extend the charter for six months at $15,990 net per day.
(20) Charterer has the option to charter the vessel for an optional year at a rate of $18,022 net per day.
(21) Rate can reach a maximum of $20,963 net per day calculated basis on a formula.
(22) Charterer has the option to charter the vessel for an optional six months period at a rate of $16,294 net per day.
(23) Charterer’s option to extend the charter for six months at $15,553 net per day plus ice-transit premium.
(24) Charterer has the option to charter the vessel for an optional year at a rate of $17,063 net per day.
(25) Rate based on Penfield pool earnings.
(26) Rate can reach a maximum of $18,525 net per day calculated basis on a formula.
(27) Charterer's option to extend the charter for up to four months at $14,072 net per day.
(28) Charterer's option to extend the charter for up to four months at $12,838 net per day.
(29) Charterer’s option to extend the bareboat charter for five years at $29,751 net per day.
(30) Charterer's option to extend the charter for up to ten months: a) up to three months at $7,653 net per day; b) up to four months at $9,875 net per day; and c) up to three months at $11,850 net per day.
(31) Charterer's option to extend the charter for up to four months at $11,603 net per day.
(32) Charterer's option to extend the charter for up to six months: a) up to three months at $12,838 net per day; and b) up to three months at $13,578 net per day.
(33) Charterer's option to extend the charter for up to two months at $8,888 net per day.
(34) Bareboat chartered-in vessel with purchase option, expected to be delivered in the third quarter of 2021. In the second quarter of 2020, Navios Acquisition exercised its option for a fourth Japanese newbuild VLCC under a twelve year bareboat charter agreement with de-escalating purchase options and expected delivery in the third quarter of 2022.
We believe that the following strengths will allow us to maintain a competitive advantage within the international shipping market:
|•||Modern, High—Quality Fleet. We own a large fleet of modern, high–quality double–hull tankers that are designed for enhanced safety and low operating costs. We believe that the increased enforcement of stringent environmental standards currently being imposed throughout the world has resulted in a shift in major charterers’ preference towards greater use of modern double–hull vessels. We also have a large proportion of young product tankers in our fleet. As of April 20, 2021, our core fleet had an average age of approximately 9.4 years, basis fully delivered fleet. We believe that owning and maintaining a modern, high–quality fleet reduces off–hire time and operating costs, improves safety and environmental performance and provides us with a competitive advantage in securing employment for our vessels.|
|•||Operating Visibility Through Contracted Revenues. All of the vessels that we have taken delivery of as of April 20, 2021, are employed with an average remaining charter period of approximately one year, and we believe our existing employment coverage provides us with predictable, contracted revenues and operating visibility. As of April 20, 2021, we had contracts covering 78.0% of available days in 2021.|
|•||Diversified Fleet. Our diversified fleet, which includes VLCC, product and chemical tankers, allows us to serve our customers’ international crude oil, petroleum product and liquid bulk chemical transportation needs. VLCC tankers transport crude oil and operate on primarily long–haul trades from the Arabian Gulf or the Atlantic basin to the Far East, North America and Europe. Product tankers transport a large number of different refined oil products, such as naphtha, gasoline, kerosene, jetfuel and gasoil, and principally operate on short– to medium–haul routes. Chemical tankers transport primarily organic and inorganic chemicals, vegetable oils and animal fats. We believe that our fleet of vessels servicing the crude oil, product and chemical tanker transportation sectors provides us with more balanced exposure to oil and commodities and more diverse opportunities to generate revenues than would focus on any single shipping sector.|
|•||High Quality Counterparties. Our strategy is to charter our vessels to international oil companies, refiners and large vessel operators under long, medium and short–term contracts. We are committed to providing safe and quality transportation services and developing and maintaining long–term relationships with our customers, and we believe that our modern fleet will allow us to charter–out our vessels to what management views as high–quality counterparties and for long periods of time. Our current charterers include: Shell Tankers Singapore Private LTD (“Shell”), one of the largest global groups of energy and petrochemical companies, operating in over 70 countries; Navig8 which controls a substantial fleet of product chemical tankers; Mansel, which is the commercial tanker shipping arm of the Vitol Group, a major oil trader, trading over 8 million barrels of crude and product per day; Chevron, one of the world’s leading integrated energy companies; Saudi Aramco, the state owned oil company of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; China Shipping Development (“China Shipping”); and China ZhenHua Oil Trading (“China ZhenHua”).|
|•||An Experienced Management Team and a Strong Brand. We have an experienced management team that we believe is well regarded in the shipping industry. We also believe that we will be able to leverage the management structure of Navios Holdings and the Manager which benefit from reputations for reliability and performance. Our management team is led by Angeliki Frangou, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, who has approximately 31 years of experience in the shipping industry. Ms. Frangou is also the Chairman & Chief Executive Officer of Navios Holdings and Navios Partners and has been a Chief Executive Officer of various shipping companies in the past. Ms. Frangou is a member of a number of recognized shipping committees. We believe that our well respected management team and strong brand may present us with market opportunities not afforded to other industry participants.|
We seek to generate predictable and growing cash flow through the following:
|•||Strategically Manage Sector Exposure. We operate a fleet of crude carriers and product and chemical tankers, which we believe provides us with diverse opportunities with a range of producers and consumers. As we grow and renew our fleet, we expect to adjust our relative emphasis among the crude oil, product and chemical tanker sectors according to our view of the relative opportunities in these sectors. We believe that having a mixed fleet of tankers provides the flexibility to adapt to changing market conditions and will allow us to capitalize on sector–specific opportunities through varying economic cycles.|
|•||Enhance Operating Visibility With Our Employment Strategy. We believe that we are a safe, cost-efficient operator of modern and well-maintained tankers. We also believe that these attributes, together with our strategy of proactively working towards meeting our customers’ chartering needs, will contribute to our ability to attract leading charterers as customers and to our success in obtaining attractive long-term contracts. We will also seek profit sharing arrangements in our time charters, to provide us with potential incremental revenue above the contracted minimum charter rates. Depending on the then applicable market conditions, we intend to deploy our vessels to leading charterers on a mix of long, medium and short-term time contracts, with a greater emphasis on long-term charters and profit sharing. We believe that this chartering strategy will afford us opportunities to capture increased profits during strong charter markets, while benefiting from the relatively stable cash flows and high utilization rates associated with longer-term time charters. As of April 20, 2021, we had contracts covering 78.0% of available days in 2021.|
|•||Actively Manage our Fleet to Maximize Return on Capital over Market Cycles. We plan to actively manage the size and composition of our fleet through opportunistic acquisitions and dispositions as part of our effort to achieve above-market returns on capital for our vessel assets. Using Navios Holdings’ global network of relationships and extensive experience in the maritime transportation industry, coupled with our Manager’s shipping and financial expertise, we plan to opportunistically grow and renew our fleet through the timely and selective acquisition of high-quality newbuilding or secondhand vessels when we believe those acquisitions will result in attractive returns on invested capital and increased cash flow. We also intend to engage in opportunistic dispositions where we can achieve attractive values for our vessels as we assess the market cycle. We believe our diverse and versatile fleet, combined with the experience and long-standing relationships of Navios Holdings with participants in the maritime transportation industry, position us to identify and take advantage of attractive acquisition opportunities.|
|•||Leverage the Experience, Brand, Network and Relationships of Navios Holdings. We intend to capitalize on the global network of relationships that Navios Holdings has developed during its long history of investing and operating in the marine transportation industry. This includes decades-long relationships with leading charterers, financing sources and key shipping industry players. When charter markets and vessel prices are depressed and vessel financing is difficult to obtain we believe the relationships and experience of Navios Holdings and its management enhances our ability to acquire young, technically advanced vessels at cyclically low prices and employ them under attractive charters with leading charterers. Navios Holdings’ long involvement and reputation for reliability in the Asia Pacific region have also allowed it to develop privileged relationships with many of the largest institutions in Asia. Through its established reputation and relationships, Navios Holdings has had access to opportunities not readily available to most other industry participants that lack Navios Holdings’ brand recognition, credibility and track record.|
|•||Benefit from Navios Holdings’ Risk Management Practices and Corporate Managerial Support. Risk management requires the balancing of a number of factors in a cyclical and potentially volatile environment. In part, this requires a view of the overall health of the market, as well as an understanding of capital costs and returns. Navios Holdings actively engages in assessing financial and other risks associated with fluctuating market rates, fuel prices, credit risks, interest rates and foreign exchange rates. Navios Holdings closely monitors credit exposure to charterers and other counterparties and has established policies designed to ensure that contracts are entered into with counterparties that have appropriate credit history. We believe that Navios Acquisition benefits from these established policies.|
|•||Sustain a Competitive Cost Structure. Pursuant to our management agreement with the Manager, the Manager coordinates and oversees the commercial, technical and administrative management of our fleet. We believe that the Manager is able to do so at rates competitive with those that would be available to us through independent vessel management companies. For example, pursuant to our Management Agreement with the Manager, vessel operating expenses of our vessels are fixed through December 2024. We believe this external management arrangement will enhance the scalability of our business by allowing us to grow our fleet without incurring significant additional overhead costs. We believe that we will be able to leverage the economies of scale of the Manager and manage operating, maintenance and corporate costs. At the same time, we believe the young age and high-quality of the vessels in our fleet, coupled with the Manager’s safety and environmental record, will position us favorably within the crude oil, product and chemical tanker transportation sectors with our customers and for future business opportunities.|
We provide or will provide seaborne shipping services under contracts with customers that we believe are creditworthy.
Our major customers during 2020 were Navig8, China ZhenHua and China Shipping. For the year ended December 31, 2020, these three customers accounted for 25.5%, 11.4%, and 10.7%, respectively, of Navios Acquisition’s revenue.
Our major customers during 2019 were Navig8 and COSCO Dalian. For the year ended December 31, 2019, these two customers accounted for 34.6%, and 10.0%, respectively, of Navios Acquisition’s revenue.
Our major customers during 2018 were Navig8 and Mansel. For the year ended December 31, 2018, these two customers accounted for 39.2%, and 12.1%, respectively, of Navios Acquisition’s revenue.
Although we believe that if any one of our contracts were terminated we could re-charter the related vessel at the prevailing market rate relatively quickly, the permanent loss of a significant customer or a substantial decline in the amount of services requested by a significant customer could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations if we were unable to re-charter our vessel on a favorable basis due to then-current market conditions, or otherwise.
The market for international seaborne crude oil transportation services is fragmented and highly competitive. Seaborne crude oil transportation services generally are provided by two main types of operators: major oil company captive fleets (both private and state-owned) and independent ship owner fleets. In addition, several owners and operators pool their vessels together on an ongoing basis, and such pools are available to customers to the same extent as independently owned and operated fleets. Many major oil companies and other oil trading companies also operate their own vessels and use such vessels not only to transport their own crude oil but also to transport crude oil for third party charterers in direct competition with independent owners and operators in the tanker charter market. Competition for charters is intense and is based upon price, location, size, age, condition and acceptability of the vessel and its manager. Due in part to the fragmented tanker market, competitors with greater resources could enter the tanker market and operate larger fleets through acquisitions or consolidations and may be willing or able to accept lower prices than us, which could result in our achieving lower revenues from our vessels. See “Risk Factors—Our growth depends on our ability to obtain customers, for which we face substantial competition. In the highly competitive tanker industry, we may not be able to compete for charters with new entrants or established companies with greater resources, which may adversely affect our results of operations.”
A time charter is a contract for the use of a vessel for a fixed period of time at a specified daily rate. Under a time charter, the vessel owner provides crewing and other services related to the vessel’s operation, the cost of which is included in the daily rate and the customer is responsible for substantially all of the vessel voyage costs. Most of the vessels in our fleet are hired out under time charters, and we intend to continue to hire out our vessels under time charters. The following discussion describes the material terms common to all of our time charters.
Base Hire Rate
“Base hire rate” refers to the basic payment from the customer for the use of the vessel. The hire rate is generally payable monthly, in advance on the first day of each month, in U.S. Dollars as specified in the charter.
When the vessel is “off-hire,” the charterer generally is not required to pay the base hire rate, and we are responsible for all costs. Prolonged off-hire may lead to vessel substitution or termination of the time charter. A vessel generally will be deemed off-hire if there is a loss of time due to, among other things:
|•||operational deficiencies; drydocking for repairs, maintenance or inspection; equipment breakdowns; or delays due to accidents, crewing strikes, certain vessel detentions or similar problems; or|
|•||the shipowner’s failure to maintain the vessel in compliance with its specifications and contractual standards or to provide the required crew.|
Under some of our charters, the charterer is permitted to terminate the time charter if the vessel is off-hire for an extended period, which is generally defined as a period of 90 or more consecutive off-hire days.
We are generally entitled to suspend performance under the time charters covering our vessels if the customer defaults in its payment obligations. Under some of our time charters, either party may terminate the charter in the event of war in specified countries or in locations that would significantly disrupt the free trade of the vessel. Some of our time charters covering our vessels require us to return to the charterer, upon the loss of the vessel, all advances paid by the charterer but not earned by us.
For vessels operating in pooling arrangements, the Company earns a portion of total revenues generated by the pool, net of expenses incurred by the pool. The amount allocated to each pool participant vessel, including the Company’s vessels, is determined in accordance with an agreed-upon formula, which are determined by the margins awarded to each vessel in the pool based on the vessel’s age, design and other performance characteristics. Revenue under pooling arrangements is accounted for as variable rate operating leases on the accrual basis and is recognized in the period in which the variability is resolved. The Company recognizes net pool revenue on a monthly and quarterly basis, when the vessel has participated in a pool during the period and the amount of pool revenue can be estimated reliably based on the pool report. The allocation of such net revenue may be subject to future adjustments by the pool however, such changes are not expected to be material.
The Company’s revenues earned under voyage contracts (revenues for the transportation of cargo) were previously recognized ratably over the estimated relative transit time of each voyage. A voyage was deemed to commence when a vessel was available for loading and was deemed to end upon the completion of the discharge of the current cargo. Under a voyage charter, a vessel is provided for the transportation of specific goods between specific ports in return for payment of an agreed upon freight per ton of cargo. Upon adoption of ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenue ratably from port of loading to when the charterer’s cargo is discharged as well as defer costs that meet the definition of “costs to fulfill a contract” and relate directly to the contract.
Vessel operating expenses (management fees): Pursuant to the Management Agreement dated May 28, 2010 and as amended in May 2012, May 2014, May 2016 and May 2018, the Manager provided commercial and technical management services to Navios Acquisition’s vessels for a fixed daily fee of: (a) $6,500 per MR2 product tanker and chemical tanker vessel; (b) $7,150 per LR1 product tanker vessel; and (c) $9,500 per VLCC, through May 2020.
Following the Merger with Navios Midstream, completed on December 13, 2018, the Management Agreement covers the vessels acquired.
On August 29, 2019, Navios Acquisition entered into a sixth amendment (the “Sixth Amendment”) to the Management Agreement with the Manager. The Sixth Amendment extends the duration of the Management Agreement until January 1, 2025, with an automatic renewal for an additional five years, unless earlier terminated by either party, and provides for payment of a termination fee, equal to the fees charged for the full calendar year preceding the termination date payable by Navios Acquisition in the event the Management Agreement is terminated on or before December 31, 2024. The Sixth Amendment also sets forth the fixed vessel operating expenses for the period through December 31, 2019 and the two-year period commencing January 1, 2020, which fixed vessel operating expenses, excludes dry-docking expenses, which are reimbursed at cost by Navios Acquisition, as follows: (a) $7,150 and $7,225, respectively, daily rate per owned LR1 product tanker vessel; (b) $6,500 and $6,825, respectively, daily rate per owned MR2 product tanker vessel and chemical tanker vessel; (c) $9,500 and $9,650, respectively, daily rate per VLCC tanker vessel; and (d) a daily rate of $50 per vessel for technical and commercial management services. Commencing January 1, 2022, the fees described in subsections (a) through (c) are subject to an annual increase of 3%, unless otherwise agreed.
The seventh amendment to the Management Agreement entered into on December 13, 2019, sets forth the vessel operating expenses fixed for the two years commencing on January 1, 2020 at: (a) $6,825 per day per owned MR1, MR2 product tanker and chemical tanker; (b) $7,225 per day per owned LR1 product tanker vessel; and (c) $9,650 per VLCC. The agreement also provides for a technical and commercial management fee of $50 per day per vessel. Commencing January 1, 2022, the fees described in subsections (a) through (c) are subject to an annual increase of 3%, unless otherwise agreed. The eight amendment to the Management Agreement, dated June 26, 2020, fixed the vessel operating expenses for the container vessels acquired as result of the liquidation of Navios Europe II at: (a) $5,250 per day per Container vessel of 1,500 TEU up to 1,999 TEU; and (b) $6,100 per day per Container vessel of 2,000 TEU up to 3,450 TEU. The technical and commercial management fee of $50 per day per vessel and the annual increase of 3% after January 1, 2022 for the remaining period unless agreed otherwise applies also to this category of vessels.
Under the Management Agreement drydocking expenses are reimbursed at cost for all vessels.
Total fixed vessel operating expenses for each of the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 amounted to $127.6 million, $107.7 million and $94.0 million, respectively.
General and administrative expenses: On May 28, 2010, Navios Acquisition entered into an administrative services agreement with the Manager (the “Administrative Services Agreement”), pursuant to which the Manager provides certain administrative management services to Navios Acquisition which include: bookkeeping, audit and accounting services, legal and insurance services, administrative and clerical services, banking and financial services, advisory services, client and investor relations and other services. The Manager is reimbursed for reasonable costs and expenses incurred in connection with the provision of these services. In May 2014, Navios Acquisition extended the duration of its existing Administrative Services Agreement with the Manager, until May 2020.
Following the Merger with Navios Midstream, completed on December 13, 2018, the Administrative Services Agreement covered the vessels acquired.
In August 2019, Navios Acquisition extended the duration of its existing Administrative Services Agreement with the Manager until January 1, 2025, to be automatically renewed for another five years. The agreement also provides for payment of a termination fee, equal to the fees charged for the full calendar year preceding the termination date, by Navios Acquisition in the event the Administrative Services Agreement is terminated on or before December 31, 2024.
Following the Liquidation of Navios Europe I in December 2019, Navios Acquisition acquired three MR1 product tankers and two LR1 product tankers. The Administrative Services Agreement also covers the vessels acquired.
Following the Liquidation of Navios Europe II, Navios Acquisition acquired seven containerships on June 29, 2020. The Administrative Services Agreement also covers the vessels acquired.
For each of the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 the expense arising from administrative services rendered by the Manager was $13.1 million, $11.1 million and $8.9 million, respectively.
Management of Ship Operations, Administration and Safety
The Manager provides, through a wholly owned subsidiary, expertise in various functions critical to our operations. Pursuant to the Management Agreement and an Administrative Services Agreement with the Manager, we have access to human resources, financial and other administrative functions, including:
|•||bookkeeping, internal audit, IT and accounting services;|
|•||legal and insurance services;|
|•||administrative and clerical services;|
|•||banking and financial services;|
|•||executive management services; and|
|•||client and investor relations.|
Technical management services are also provided, including:
|•||commercial management of the vessel;|
|•||vessel maintenance and crewing;|
|•||purchasing and insurance; and|
For more information on the Management Agreement and the Administrative Services Agreement we have with the Manager, please read “Item 7. — Major Stockholders and Related Party Transactions”.
Governmental and Other Regulations
Sources of Applicable Maritime Laws and Standards
Shipping is one of the world’s most heavily regulated industries, as it is subject to both Governmental regulation and industry standards. The Governmental regulation to which we are subject include local and national laws, as well as international treaties and conventions, and regulations in force in jurisdictions where our vessels operate and are registered. We also are subject to regulation by ship classification societies and industry associations, which often have independent standards. In the United States and, increasingly, in Europe, the national, state, and local laws and regulations are more stringent than international conventions, as well as industry standards. Violations of these laws, regulations, treaties and other requirements could result in sanctions by regulators including possible fines, penalties, delays, and detention. Compliance with these categories of regulation also impact the vetting process – non-compliances can result in vetting failures, as noted above.
The primary areas of maritime laws and standards to which we are subject include environment, safety, and security, as provided in detail below.
International Conventions and Standards
The IMO is the United Nations agency with jurisdiction over maritime safety and the prevention of pollution by ships. The IMO has adopted a number of international conventions concerned with preventing, reducing, or managing pollution from ships; and ship safety and security. The most significant of these are described below.
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships or “MARPOL” is the primary international convention governing vessel pollution prevention and response. MARPOL includes six annexes concerning operational pollution by oil, noxious liquid substances, harmful substances, sewage, garbage and air emissions. More specifically, these annexes contain regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil (Annex I), by noxious liquid substances in bulk (Annex II), by harmful substances in packaged forms within the scope of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (Annex III), by sewage (Annex IV), by garbage (Annex V), and by air emissions, including sulfur oxides (“SOx”), nitrogen oxides (“NOx”), and particulate matter (Annex VI). The annexes also contain recordkeeping and inspection requirements.
Under MARPOL, our ships are required to have an International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate and a Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan; under Annex IV, an International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate; under Annex V, a Garbage Management Plan; and under Annex VI, an International Air Pollution Prevention Certificate issued by their flag States, among other requirements, some of which must be approved by their flag States. Certain jurisdictions in which we trade have not adopted all of the MARPOL annexes, but have established various national, regional, or local laws and regulations that apply to these areas.
MARPOL Annex VI has been amended and was also designed to phase in increasingly stringent limits on sulfur emissions. On January 1, 2020, the emissions standard under MARPOL Annex VI for the reduction of sulfur oxides was lowered to 0.5% worldwide (down from the previous level of 3.5%). Current regulations also allow for special emissions control areas (“ECAs”) to be established with more stringent controls on emissions of 0.1% sulfur, particulate matter, and nitrogen oxide emissions. Depending on vessel specifics, transitioning to the use of low sulfur fuel as a means of compliance may have required fuel system modification and tank cleaning. Another means of compliance is the installation of pollution control equipment (exhaust gas cleaning systems or scrubbers), allowing the vessel to use the existing, less expensive, high sulfur content fuel.
Thus far, ECAs have been formally adopted for the Baltic Sea area (limits SOx emissions only); the North Sea area including the English Channel (limiting SOx emissions only); the North American ECA (limiting SOx, NOx and particulate matter emissions); and the U.S. Caribbean ECA (limiting SOx, NOx and particulates). The IMO approved, then adopted in 2017, the designation of the North Sea and Baltic Sea as ECAs for NOx under Annex VI as well, which took effect in January 2021 for new vessels constructed on or after January 1, 2021 or existing vessels that replace an engine with non-identical engines, or install an additional engine.
Despite Annex VI’s extensive regulations, other jurisdictions have taken unilateral approaches to air emissions regulation. For example, the U.S. state of California adopted more stringent low sulfur fuel requirements within California-regulated waters, requiring marine gas oil, extending out to 24 nautical miles, which thus prohibits exhaust gas cleaning systems. China has also established local emissions control areas. While the Chinese areas are currently consistent with international standards in terms of sulfur content, certain Chinese local emissions control areas may become more stringent than international requirements in the future. Similarly, South Korea has established Port Air Quality Control Zones which cap the sulfur content of fuel at 0.1%. This provision took effect on September 1, 2020.
Additionally, Annex II to MARPOL prescribes requirements for carriage of designated noxious liquid substances (“NLS”) in bulk. NLS are separated into three categories (X, Y, and Z) depending upon the seriousness of the hazard presented. Coastal or flag States may issue civil or criminal penalties for the discharge of NLS into the sea depending on the category discharged, the location of the discharge, and the conditions of discharge. Similar fines and penalties may be issued for violations of other of MARPOL’s Annexes.
The IMO, as well as jurisdictions worldwide acting outside the scope of the IMO, have implemented requirements relating to the management of ballast water to prevent the harmful effects of foreign invasive species. The IMO’s International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (the “BWM Convention”) entered into force on September 8, 2017. The BWM Convention requires ships to manage ballast water in a manner that removes, renders harmless, or avoids the uptake or discharge of aquatic organisms and pathogens within ballast water and sediment. As of April 19, 2021, the BWM Convention had 86 contracting states, representing 91.12% of world gross tonnage. The United States is not party to the BWM Convention, but has similar, though not identical, requirements.
As amended, the BWM Convention requires, among other things, ballast water exchange, the maintenance of certain records, and the implementation of a Ballast Water and Sediments Management Plan. It also requires the installation of ballast water management systems for existing ships by certain deadlines, as described below.
Ships constructed prior to September 8, 2017 must install ballast water management systems by the first renewal survey following September 8, 2017 and must comply with IMO discharge standards by the due date for their International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate renewal survey under MARPOL Annex I. Ships constructed after September 8, 2017 are required to comply with the BWM Convention upon delivery. All ships must meet the IMO ballast water discharge standard by September 8, 2024, regardless of construction date. During the Marine Environmental Protection Committee’s (“MEPC”) session 75, held November 16-20, 2020, new amendments were adopted regarding testing and certification of ballast water management systems, which are expected to enter into force on June 1, 2022. The updated guidance for Ballast Water and Sediments Management Plan includes more robust testing and performance specifications.
|•||International Conventions for Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage and for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage and Other Pollution Liability Regimes|
Several international conventions impose and limit pollution liability from vessels. An owner of a tanker vessel carrying a cargo of “persistent oil,” as defined by the International Convention for Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (the “CLC”), is subject to strict liability for any pollution damage caused in a contracting State by an escape or discharge from cargo or bunker tanks. There is a financial limit on this liability, which is calculated by reference to the tonnage of the ship. The right to limit liability may be lost if the spill is caused by the ship owner’s intentional or reckless conduct. Liability may also be incurred under the CLC for a bunker spill from the vessel even when she is not carrying such cargo if the spill occurs while she is in ballast. However, certain States, such as Brazil, have only ratified earlier iterations of the CLC, which have a lower liability limit, restrict the area in which the convention is applicable, and only cover spills from tankers if laden at the time of the spill. The CLC applies in over 100 jurisdictions around the world, but it does not apply in the United States, where the corresponding liability laws, such as the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (see below), may be more stringent. Further, courts in certain States may disregard some of the provisions of the CLC, which can increase our liability in certain areas of the globe if there were a significant incident.
When a tanker is carrying clean oil products that do not constitute “persistent oil” covered under the CLC, liability for any pollution damage will generally fall outside the CLC and will generally depend on national laws in the jurisdiction where the spillage occurs, although other international conventions may apply. The same principle applies to any pollution from the vessel in a jurisdiction which is not a party to the CLC.
For vessel operations not covered by the CLC, including certain vessels in our fleet based on where they trade, international liability for oil pollution may be governed by the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage (the “Bunker Convention”) in addition to local and national environmental laws. The Bunker Convention entered into force in 2008 and imposes strict liability on ship owners for pollution damage and response costs incurred in contracting States caused by discharges, or threatened discharges, of bunker oil from all classes of ships not covered by the CLC. The Bunker Convention also requires registered owners of ships over a certain tonnage to maintain insurance to cover their liability for pollution damage in an amount equal to the limits of liability under the applicable national or international limitation regime, including liability limits calculated in accordance with the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims 1976, as amended (the “1976 Convention”). As of April 19, 2021, the Bunker Convention had 100 contracting states, representing 95.06% of the gross tonnage of the world’s merchant fleet. In non-contracting States, such as the United States, liability for such bunker oil pollution typically is determined by the national or other domestic laws in the jurisdiction in which the spillage occurs.
The 1976 Convention is the most widely applicable international regime limiting maritime pollution liability. Rights to limit liability under the 1976 Convention are forfeited where a spill is caused by a ship owner’s intentional or reckless conduct. Certain jurisdictions have ratified the IMO’s Protocol of 1996 to the 1976 Convention, referred to herein as the “Protocol of 1996.” The Protocol of 1996 provides for substantially higher liability limits in those jurisdictions than the limits set forth in the 1976 Convention. Finally, some jurisdictions, such as the United States, are not a party to either the 1976 Convention or the Protocol of 1996, and, therefore, a ship owner’s rights to limit liability for maritime pollution in such jurisdictions may be uncertain or subject to national and local law.
|•||International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea and the International Safety Management Code|
Our vessels also must operate in compliance with the requirements set forth in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, as amended, (“SOLAS”), including the International Safety Management Code (the “ISM Code”), which is contained in Chapter IX of SOLAS.
SOLAS was enacted primarily to promote the safety of life and preservation of property. SOLAS, and the regulations and codes of practice thereunder, is regularly amended to introduce heightened shipboard safety requirements into the industry. The ISM Code requires ship operators to develop and maintain an extensive Safety Management System (“SMS”) that includes the adoption of a safety and environmental protection policy setting forth instructions and procedures for safe vessel operation and describing procedures for dealing with emergencies. The ISM Code also requires vessel operators to obtain a Document of Compliance (“DOC”) demonstrating that the company complies with the SMS and a Safety Management Certificate (“SMC”) for each vessel verifying compliance with the approved SMS by each vessel’s flag State. No vessel can obtain an SMC unless its manager has been awarded a Document of Compliance, issued by the flag State for the vessel, under the ISM Code.
Noncompliance with the ISM Code and regulations contained in other IMO Conventions may subject a shipowner to increased liability, lead to decreases in available insurance coverage for affected vessels, or result in the denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports. For example, the United States Coast Guard and European Union authorities have indicated that vessels not in compliance with the ISM Code may be prohibited from trading in ports in the United States and European Union. Non-compliances identified in port, may lead to delays and detention. Each company’s DOC and each vessel’s SMC must be periodically renewed, and compliance must be periodically verified. The failure of a ship operator to comply with the ISM Code and IMO measures could subject such party to increased liability, decrease available insurance coverage for the affected vessels, or result in a denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports.
|•||Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Reduction|
The IMO now has mandatory measures for an international greenhouse gas (“GHG”) reduction regime for a global industry sector, and recent activity indicates continued interest and regulation in this area in the coming years. Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI included energy efficiency measures that took effect on January 1, 2013 and apply to all ships of 400 gross tonnage and above. A major component of this GHG regime is the development of a ship energy efficiency management plan (“SEEMP”), with which vessels across the industry must comply. Vessel SEEMPs were required to be updated by December 31, 2018 to include data collection processes and vessels were required to begin collecting data on fuel oil consumption on January 1, 2019. In November 2020, MEPC approved draft amendments to MARPOL Annex VI concerning mandatory goal-based technical and operational measures to reduce carbon intensity of international shipping, with a view to adoption at the MEPC 76 meeting in June 2021. If adopted, they would enter into force on January 1, 2023.
In 2002, following the September 11 terrorist attacks, SOLAS was amended to impose detailed security obligations on vessels and port authorities, most of which are contained in the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (“ISPS Code”), which is Chapter XI-2 of SOLAS. Vessels demonstrate compliance with the ISPS Code by having an International Ship Security Certificate issued by their flag State.
Among the various requirements are:
|•||On-board installation of automatic information systems to enhance vessel-to-vessel and vessel-to-shore communications;|
|•||On-board installation of ship security alert systems;|
|•||Development of Vessel Security Plans;|
|•||Appointment of a Ship Security Officer and a Company Security Officer; and|
|•||Compliance with Flag State’s security certification requirements.|
Applicable U.S. Laws
|•||The Act to Prevention Pollution from Ships|
The Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships (“APPS”) and corresponding U.S. Coast Guard regulations implement several MARPOL annexes in the United States. Violations of MARPOL, APPS, or the implementing regulations can result in liability for civil and/or criminal penalties. Numerous vessel owners and operators, as well as individual ship officers and shoreside technical personnel have been criminally prosecuted for APPS violations, which may result in significant fines and imprisonment for ship officers.
|•||Clean Water Act, National Invasive Species Act, Vessel General Permit, and Vessel Incidental Discharge Act.|
The Clean Water Act (“CWA”) prohibits the discharge of oil or hazardous substances in U.S. navigable waters and imposes penalties for unauthorized discharges. The CWA also imposes substantial liability for the costs of removal, remediation and damages.
The United States is not a party to the BWM Convention discussed above. Instead, ballast water operations are governed by the National Invasive Species Act (“NISA”) and U.S. Coast Guard regulations mandating ballast water management practices for all vessels equipped with ballast water tanks entering U.S. waters, as well as the Vessel General Permit issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) under the CWA. In addition, through the CWA certification provisions that allow U.S. states to place additional conditions in EPA’s Vessel General Permit, a number of states have proposed or implemented a variety of stricter ballast water requirements including, in some states, specific treatment standards.
Depending on a vessel’s compliance date for installation of a U.S. Coast Guard type-approved ballast water management system, these requirements may be met by performing mid-ocean ballast exchange, by retaining ballast water onboard the vessel, or by using another ballast water management system authorized by the U.S. Coast Guard. In the near future, ballast exchange will no longer be permissible. These U.S. Coast Guard regulations and EPA’s Vessel General Permit, however, will ultimately be replaced with the new regulatory regime being developed under Vessel Incidental Discharge Act (“VIDA”) signed into law on December 4, 2018, which is expected to contain similar , though possibly more stringent, requirements.
VIDA establishes a new framework for regulation of discharges incidental to the normal operation of commercial vessels into navigable waters of the United States, including management of ballast water. VIDA required the EPA to implement a final rule setting forth standards for incidental discharges, including ballast water, by December 4, 2020 and the U.S. Coast Guard to issue a final rule implementing the EPA’s standards by December 4, 2022. However, EPA missed the statutory deadline of December 4, 2020 and EPA’s final rule is not expected to be published for several months at best. As such, the overall implementation of VIDA will be delayed, including the U.S. Coast Guard’s implementation of EPA’s final rule on standards. Implementation of VIDA is expected to create more uniformity in state and federal regulation of incidental vessel discharges and thus is expected to result in a simplification of the current patch-work of federal, state, and local ballast water regulations in the United States. However, the relevant standards and regulations implementing those standards are expected to take at least until sometime in 2023, and it is ultimately unclear what discharge limits may apply to discharges under VIDA, as well as how certain permissible state-specific standards may be implemented.
More specifically, on October 26, 2020, the EPA issued its Notice of Proposed Rulemaking – Vessel Incidental Discharge National Standards of Performance, which is the first step toward the final standards and regulations. The proposed rule would establish both general and specific discharge standards. The general discharge standards are preventative in nature and apply to all incidental discharges. They are organized into three categories: (1) general operation and maintenance; (2) biofouling management; and (3) oil management. These general standards mandate overall minimization of discharges and prescribe best management practices toward achieving this goal. No training or education requirements are included, as these will be set by the U.S. Coast Guard in its rulemaking once EPA’s standards are finalized. EPA’s proposal covers 20 incidental discharges from vessels, down from 27 covered by the 2013 VGP. Importantly, EPA did not significantly reduce the number of discharges covered, rather combined several discharges into one, taking a more systematic approach to managing the discharges. Two years after the EPA publishes its final standard, the U.S. Coast Guard is required to develop corresponding implementation, compliance and enforcement regulations for those standards, including any requirements governing the design, construction, testing, approval, installation and use of devices necessary to achieve the EPA standards.
|•||Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and State Law Regarding Oil Pollution Liability|
The United States has a comprehensive regulatory and liability regime for the protection and cleanup of the environment from oil spills from all vessels, including cargo or bunker oil spills from tankers. This regime is set forth in the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, or “OPA.”
OPA applies to owners and operators whose vessels trade in the United States, its territories and possessions or whose vessels operate in United States waters. Under OPA, vessel owners, operators and bareboat charterers are “responsible parties” and are jointly, severally and strictly liable for all containment and clean-up costs, as well as damages, arising from discharges or substantial threats of discharges, of oil from their vessels unless the spill results solely from the act or omission of a third party, an act of God or an act of war, which is determined after-the-fact. As such, responsible parties must respond to a spill immediately irrespective of fault.
OPA liability limits are periodically adjusted for inflation, and the U.S. Coast Guard issued a final rule on August 13, 2019 to reflect increases in the Consumer Price Index, which resulted in higher liability limits. With this adjustment, OPA currently limits liability of the responsible party for single-hull tanker vessels over 3,000 gross tons to the greater of $3,700 per gross ton or $27.422 million (this amount is reduced to $7.4788 million if the vessel is less than 3,000 gross tons). For tanker vessels over 3,000 gross tons, other than a single-hull vessel, liability is limited to $2,300 per gross ton or $19.943 million (or $4.9859 million for a vessel less than 3,000 gross tons), whichever is greater. Under OPA, these liability limits do not apply if an incident was directly caused by violation of applicable U.S. federal safety, construction or operating regulations or by a responsible party’s gross negligence or willful misconduct, or if the responsible party fails or refuses to report the incident or to cooperate and assist in connection with oil removal activities.
Under OPA, an owner or operator of a fleet of vessels is required only to demonstrate evidence of financial responsibility in an amount sufficient to cover the vessel in the fleet having the greatest maximum liability under OPA. The Certificate of Financial Responsibility (“COFR”) program has been created by the U.S. Coast Guard to ensure that vessels carrying oil as cargo or fuel in the U.S. waters have the financial ability to pay for removal costs and damages resulting from an oil spill or threat of a spill up to their liability limits, which are based on the gross tonnage of our vessels. These limits are subject to annual increases. It is possible for our liability limits to be broken as discussed above, which could expose us to unlimited liability..
A COFR is issued in the name of the company/person financially responsible in the event of a spill or threat of a spill and this is usually the owning company or operator of the vessel. Once they have shown the capability to pay clean-up and damage costs up to the liability limits required by OPA, and a guaranty is issued and then provided to the U.S. Coast Guard, the U.S. Coast Guard will issue a COFR. With a few limited exceptions (not applicable to Navios vessels), vessels greater than 300 gross tons and vessels of any size that are transferring oil or cargoes between vessels or shipping oil in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) are required to comply with the COFR regulations in order to operate in U.S. waters.
The guarantor used throughout the Navios fleet is SIGCO / The Shipowners Insurance and Guaranty Company. SIGCO issues the guaranty noted above and confirms that if the responsible party does not respond to an oil spill or threat of a spill, the guarantor will be called upon to provide the funds to do so. This would be a rare occurrence because any guaranty issued by SIGCO is contingent on protection and indemnity cover.
The COFR is renewed on a three-year basis whereas the COFR guaranty is renewed annually. The U.S. Coast Guard checks that a vessel has a valid COFR prior to or upon entering the U.S. waters. Some states have COFR requirements in addition to the federal requirement under OPA, which may be more stringent than the requirement under OPA.
Trading in the US without a valid COFR may result in the vessel being detained and/or fined up to USD 48,192.00 per day or prevented from entering U.S. ports or U.S. protectorates until the COFR is in place, or possible seizure by, and forfeiture to, the United States. We have provided satisfactory evidence of financial responsibility to the U.S. Coast Guard for all of our vessels and all have valid COFRs.
In addition to potential liability under OPA, individual states may impose their own and more stringent liability regimes with regard to oil pollution incidents occurring within their boundaries. Some states’ environmental laws impose unlimited liability for oil spills and contain more stringent financial responsibility and contingency planning requirements.
|•||Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act|
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (“CERCLA”) contains a liability regime and provides for cleanup, removal and natural resource damages for the release of hazardous substances (other than oil) whether on land or at sea. Under U.S. law, certain petroleum products which may be carried by our fleet are not considered “oil” and thus are hazardous substances regulated by CERCLA. Thus, in some cases, CERCLA could be applicable to potential cargo spills from our vessels rather than OPA.
Under CERCLA, the owner or operator of a vessel from which there is a release or threatened release of a hazardous substance is liable for certain removal costs, other remedial action, damages due to injury of natural resources, and the costs of any required health assessment for releases that expose individuals to hazardous substances. Liability for any vessel that carries any hazardous substance as cargo or residue is limited to the greater of $300 per gross ton or $5 million. For any other vessel, the limitation is the greater of $300 per gross ton or $500,000.
These liability limits do not apply if the release resulted from willful misconduct or willful negligence within the privity or knowledge of the responsible person, or from a violation of applicable safety, construction, or operating standards or regulations within the privity or knowledge of the responsible person. In addition, the liability limits also do not apply if the responsible person fails to provide all reasonable cooperation and assistance requested by a responsible public official in connection with response activities conducted under the National Contingency Plan.
Further, any person who is liable for a release or threat of release, and who fails to provide removal or remedial action ordered by the EPA is subject to punitive damages in an amount equal to three times the costs incurred by the federal Superfund trust fund as a result of such failure to act.
|•||Clean Air Act and Emissions Regulations|
The Federal Clean Air Act (“CAA”) requires the EPA to develop standards applicable to emissions of volatile organic compounds and other air contaminants. Our vessels are subject to CAA vapor control and recovery standards (“VCS”) for cleaning fuel tanks and conducting other operations in regulated port areas.
Also, under the CAA, since 1990 the U.S. Coast Guard has regulated the safety of VCSs that are required under EPA and state rules. Our vessels operating in regulated port areas have installed VCSs that are compliant with EPA, state and U.S. Coast Guard requirements. The U.S. Coast Guard has adopted regulations that made its VCS requirements more compatible with new EPA and State regulations, reflected changes in VCS technology, and codified existing U.S. Coast Guard guidelines.
In the United States, there is always a possibility that state law could be more stringent than federal law. Such is the case with certain state laws concerning marine environmental protection. A few examples include:
|•||California adopted more stringent low sulfur fuel requirements within California-regulated waters, requiring marine gas oil and prohibiting exhaust gas cleaning systems.|
|•||California also requires the use of shore power or equivalent emissions reductions strategies for vessels at all California ports.|
|•||Vessel owners may in some instances incur liability on an even more stringent basis under state law in the particular state where the spillage occurred. For example, many U.S. states have unlimited liability and more stringent requirements for financial responsibility and contingency planning.|
|•||Most states do not have comprehensive laws relating specifically to the discharge of hazardous substances into state waters as they do for oil discharges, but many states have general water pollution prevention laws that apply to hazardous substances and other materials and others have broadly written hazardous substance cleanup laws based on CERCLA that would provide a cause of action for discharges of hazardous substances from vessels.|
|•||Ship Safety and Security Laws|
With respect to ship safety, the requirements contained in SOLAS and the ISM Code generally have been implemented into U.S. law and are largely captured within U.S. Coast Guard regulations.
Ship security in the United States is governed primarily by the Marine Transportation Security Act of 2002 (“MTSA”). MTSA was implemented by U.S. Coast Guard regulations that imposed certain security requirements aboard vessels operating in waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
Because the MTSA regulations were intended to be aligned with international maritime security standards contained in the ISPS Code, the regulations exempt non-U.S.-flag vessels from MTSA vessel security measures, provided such vessels have on board a valid International Ship Security Certificate (“ISSC”) that attests to the vessel’s compliance with SOLAS security requirements and the ISPS Code.
Applicable EU Laws
European regulations in the maritime sector are in general based on international law. However, since the Erika incident in 1999 and subsequent court decisions, the European Community has become increasingly active in the field of regulation of maritime safety and protection of the environment. It has been the driving force behind a number of amendments to MARPOL (including, for example, changes to accelerate the time-table for the phase-out of single hull tankers, and to prohibit the carriage in such tankers of heavy grades of oil), and if dissatisfied either with the extent of such amendments or with the time-table for their introduction it has been prepared to legislate on a unilateral basis.
In some instances, EU regulations may impose burdens and costs on shipowners and operators beyond the requirements under international rules and standards.
|•||Liability for Pollution and Interaction between MARPOL and EU Law|
The EU has implemented certain EU-specific pollution laws, most notably a 2005 directive on ship-source pollution. This directive imposes imposing criminal sanctions for pollution caused by intent or recklessness (which would be an offense under MARPOL), as well as by “serious negligence.” The directive could therefore result in criminal liability being incurred in a European port state in circumstances where it may not be incurred in other jurisdictions.
|•||Regulation of Emissions and Emissions Trading System|
The EU has a ship emissions regime. This regime primarily mirrors the IMO regime, but is more stringent than IMO regulations in some respects.
In December 2016, the EU signed into law the National Emissions Ceiling (“NEC”) Directive, which entered into force on December 31, 2016. The NEC required implementation by individual members States through particular laws in each State by June 30, 2018. The NEC aims to set stricter emissions limits on SO2, ammonia, non-methane volatile organic compounds, NOx and fine particulate (PM2.5) by setting new upper limits for emissions of these pollutants. While the NEC is not specifically directed toward the shipping industry, the EU specifically mentions the shipping industry in its announcement of the NEC as a contributor to emissions of PM2.5, SO2 and NOx.
In February 2017, EU member states met to consider independently regulating the shipping industry under the Emissions Trading System (“ETS”), which requires certain businesses to report on carbon emissions and provides for a credit trading system for carbon allowances. On February 15, 2017, European Parliament voted in favor of a bill to include maritime shipping in the ETS by 2023 if the IMO has not promulgated a comparable system by 2021. In November 2017, the Council of Ministers, EU’s main decision-making body, agreed that Europe should act on shipping emissions from 2023 if the IMO fails to deliver effective global measures.
|•||Ship Recycling and Waste Shipment Regulations|
On December 31, 2018, EU-flagged vessels became subject to Regulation (EU) No. 1257/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2013 on ship recycling (the “EU Ship Recycling Regulation” or “ESRR”) and exempt from Regulation (EC) No. 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste (the “European Waste Shipment Regulation” or “EWSR”), which had previously governed their disposal and recycling. The EWSR continues to be applicable to Non-European Union Member State-flagged (“non-EU-flagged”) vessels.
Under the ESRR, commercial EU-flagged vessels of 500 gross tonnage and above may be recycled only at shipyards included on the European List of Authorised Ship Recycling Facilities (the “European List”). The European List presently includes eight facilities in Turkey, but no facilities in the major ship recycling countries in Asia. The combined capacity of the European List facilities may prove insufficient to absorb the total recycling volume of EU-flagged vessels. This circumstance, taken in tandem with the possible decrease in cash sales, may result in longer wait times for divestment of recyclable vessels as well as downward pressure on the purchase prices offered by European List shipyards. Furthermore, facilities located in the major ship recycling countries generally offer significantly higher vessel purchase prices, and as such, the requirement that we utilize only European List shipyards may negatively impact revenue from the residual values of our vessels.
In addition, the EWSR requires that non-EU-flagged ships departing from European Union ports be recycled only in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. In March 2018, the Rotterdam District Court ruled that the sale of four recyclable vessels by third-party Dutch ship-owner Seatrade to cash buyers, who then reflagged and resold the vessels to non-OECD country recycling yards, were effectively indirect sales to non-OECD country yards, in violation of the EWSR. If European Union Member State courts widely adopt this analysis, it may negatively impact revenue from the residual values of our vessels and we may be subject to a heightened risk of non-compliance, due diligence obligations and costs in instances in which we sell older ships to cash buyers.
Laws and International Standards to Stem Climate Change and Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions
In February 2005, the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (the “UNFCCC”) entered into force. Pursuant to the Kyoto Protocol, adopting countries are required to implement national programs to reduce emissions of certain gases, generally referred to as GHGs, which are suspected of contributing to global warming. Currently, the GHG emissions from international shipping do not come under the Kyoto Protocol.
Some attention has been paid to GHGs in Europe. On June 28, 2013, the European Commission (“EC”) adopted a communication setting out a strategy for progressively including GHG emissions from maritime transport in the EU’s policy for reducing its overall GHG emissions. The first step proposed by the EC was an EU Regulation to an EU-wide system for the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon dioxide emissions from large ships starting in 2018. The Regulation was adopted on April 29, 2015 and took effect on July 1, 2015, with monitoring, reporting and verification requirements beginning on January 1, 2018. This Regulation appears to be indicative of an intent to maintain pressure on the international negotiating process. The EC also adopted an Implementing Regulation, which entered into force in November 2016, setting templates for monitoring plans, emissions reports and compliance documents pursuant to Regulation 2015/757.
There are varying approaches on whether to add additional regulations on GHG emissions in the United States, which has re-entered international commitments relating to GHG regulation. However, the Transportation & Infrastructure Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, in January 2020, held a hearing on “Decarbonizing the Maritime Industry,” which highlighted alleged health impacts of GHG, the IMO’s goal of decarbonization, and what next steps can be taken in reducing emissions from vessels. Further, in March 2020 legislation was introduced in the U.S. Congress which would have required emissions reductions of 80% below the 2005 emissions level. The bill would also have required each U.S. state to develop its own Strategic Action Plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Although this bill did not become law, similar legislation has been introduced in the current Congress. Congressional Committees, including the subcommittee in the House of Representatives which oversees maritime commerce, have held hearings on the bill, as well as its impacts on the maritime sector and transportation more broadly. The current legislation under consideration in the U.S. House of Representatives would aspire to reduce GHGs by at least 50 percent below 2005 levels by 2030, and achieve net-zero GHG emissions by 2050. The bill would also authorize changes to the standards used to regulate engines in vessels and incentivize the use of shore power while in port. It is notable that both bills targeted the transportation sector in particular for GHG regulation. In addition, the IMO has developed and intends to continue developing limits on emissions before 2023. The IMO is also considering its position on market-based measures through an expert working group. Among the numerous proposals being considered by the working group are the following: a port State levy based on the amount of fuel consumed by the vessel on its voyage to the port in question; and a global emissions trading scheme which would allocate emissions allowances and set an emissions cap, among others. The IMO’s current strategy encompasses a reduction in total GHG emissions from international shipping. The IMO’s goal is to reduce the total annual GHG emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 2008, while, at the same time, pursuing efforts towards phasing them out entirely.
In addition, the IMO has developed and intends to continue developing limits on emissions before 2023. The IMO is also considering its position on market-based measures through an expert working group. Among the numerous proposals being considered by the working group are the following: a port state levy based on the amount of fuel consumed by the vessel on its voyage to the port in question; and a global emissions trading scheme which would allocate emissions allowances and set an emissions cap, among others. The IMO’s current strategy encompasses a reduction in total GHG emissions from international shipping. The IMO’s goal is to reduce the total annual GHG emissions by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008, while, at the same time, pursuing efforts towards phasing them out entirely.
The IMO has faced push back on its call to action on GHGs from industry in many countries. Despite this, work on GHG continues to be an important issue at the IMO, and recent indications show the potential for further regulation of GHG in shipping. Specifically, at the MEPC 75 meeting held November 16-20, 2020, draft regulations to cut the cargo intensity of existing ships were approved. The draft amendments will be put forward for formal adoption at MEPC 76, to be held in June 2021. Also, MEPC 75 adopted amendments to MARPOL, Annex VI to significantly strengthen the Energy Efficiency Design Index (“EEDI”) “phase 3” requirements, which are expected to enter into force on April 1, 2022. This means that new container ships and general cargo ships will have to be built significantly more energy efficient than the baseline. Further, MEPC will consider draft amendments to Chapter 4 of MARPOL Annex VI, which would regulate GHG beginning in 2023. MEPC additionally issued comments on the IMO’s “Fourth IMO GHG Study.” These developments signal continued and potentially increasing interest in GHG regulation from the IMO and the MEPC in particular.
Sanction and Compliance
We constantly monitor developments in the U.S., the E.U. and other jurisdictions that maintain economic sanctions against Iran, Russian entities, Venezuela, other countries, and other sanctions targets, including developments in implementation and enforcement of such sanctions programs. Expansion of sanctions programs, embargoes and other restrictions in the future (including additional designations of countries and persons subject to sanctions), or modifications in how existing sanctions are interpreted or enforced, could prevent our vessels from calling in ports in sanctioned countries or could limit their cargoes.
Prior to January 2016, the scope of sanctions imposed against Iran, the government of Iran and persons engaging in certain activities or doing certain business with and relating to Iran was expanded by a number of jurisdictions, including the U.S., the EU and Canada. In 2010, the U.S. enacted the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions Accountability and Divestment Act (“CISADA”), which expanded the scope of the former Iran Sanctions Act. The scope of U.S. sanctions against Iran were expanded subsequent to CISADA by, among other U.S. laws, the National Defense Authorization Act of 2012 (the “2012 NDAA”), the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (“ITRA”), and the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act of 2012 (“IFCA”).
The foregoing laws, among other things, expanded the application of prohibitions to non-U.S. companies such as our company and to transactions with no U.S. nexus, and introduced limits on the ability of non-U.S. companies and other non-U.S. persons to do business or trade with Iran when such activities relate to specific activities such as investment in Iran, the supply or export of refined petroleum or refined petroleum products to Iran, the supply and delivery of goods to Iran which could enhance Iran’s petroleum or energy sectors, and the transportation of crude oil from Iran to countries which do not enjoy Iran crude oil sanctions waivers (our tankers called in Iran but did not engage in the prohibited activities specifically identified by these sanctions).
U.S. economic sanctions on Iran fall into two general categories: “Primary” sanctions, which prohibit U.S. persons or U.S. companies and their foreign branches, foreign owned or controlled subsidiaries, U.S. citizens, U.S. permanent residents, persons within the territory of the United States from engaging in all direct and indirect trade and other transactions with Iran without U.S. government authorization, and “secondary” sanctions, which are mainly nuclear-related sanctions. While most of the U.S. nuclear-related sanctions with respect to Iran (including, inter alia, CISADA, ITRA, and IFCA) and the EU sanctions on Iran were initially lifted on January 16, 2016 through the implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (“JCPOA”) entered into between the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) and Germany, there are still certain limitations under that sanctions framework in place with which we need to comply. The primary sanctions with which U.S. persons or transactions with a U.S. nexus must comply are still in force and have not been lifted or relaxed. However, the following sanctions which were lifted under the JCPOA were reimposed (“snapped back”) on May 8, 2018 as a result of the U.S. withdrawal from the JCPOA:
|•||Sanctions on the purchase or acquisition of U.S. dollar banknotes by the Government of Iran;|
|•||Sanctions on Iran’s trade in gold or precious metals;|
|•||Sanctions on the direct or indirect sale, supply, or transfer to or from Iran of graphite, raw, or semi-finished metals such as aluminum and steel, coal, and software for integrating industrial processes;|
|•||Sanctions on significant transactions related to the purchase or sale of Iranian rials, or the maintenance of significant funds or accounts outside the territory of Iran denominated in the Iranian rial;|
|•||Sanctions on the purchase, subscription to, or facilitation of the issuance of Iranian sovereign debt; and|
|•||Sanctions on Iran’s automotive sector.|
Following a 180-day wind-down period ending on November 4, 2018, the U.S. government re-imposed the following sanctions that were lifted pursuant to the JCPOA, including sanctions on associated services related to the activities below:
|•||Sanctions on Iran’s port operators, and shipping and shipbuilding sectors, including on the Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL), South Shipping Line Iran, or their affiliates;|
|•||Sanctions on petroleum-related transactions with, among others, the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), Naftiran Intertrade Company (NICO), and National Iranian Tanker Company (NITC), including the purchase of petroleum, petroleum products, or petrochemical products from Iran;|
|•||Sanctions on transactions by foreign financial institutions with the Central Bank of Iran and designated Iranian financial institutions under Section 1245 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 (NDAA);|
|•||Sanctions on the provision of specialized financial messaging services to the Central Bank of Iran and Iranian financial institutions described in Section 104(c)(2)(E)(ii) of the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions and Divestment Act of 2010 (CISADA);|
|•||Sanctions on the provision of underwriting services, insurance, or reinsurance; and|
|•||Sanctions on Iran’s energy sector.|
In two Executive Orders issued in 2019, U.S. secondary sanctions against Iran were expanded to include the Iron, Steel, Aluminum, and Copper Sectors of Iran. The new, additional sanctions, which are pursuant to an Executive Order issued on January 10, 2020, may be imposed against any individual owning, operating, trading with, or assisting sectors of the Iranian economy including construction, manufacturing, textiles, and mining. As a result, trade with Iran in almost all industry sectors is now off limits for U.S. as well as non-U.S. persons, except for trade in medicine/medical items and food and agricultural commodities.
The new sanctions imposed in 2020 also authorize the imposition of sanctions on a foreign financial institution upon a determination that the foreign financial institution has, on or after January 10, 2020, knowingly conducted or facilitated any significant financial transaction: i) for the sale, supply, or transfer to or from Iran of significant goods or services used in connection with a prohibited sector of the Iranian economy, or (ii) for or on behalf of any person whose property and interests in property are blocked.
U.S. Iran sanctions also prohibit U.S. as well as non-U.S. persons from engaging in significant transactions with any individual or entity that the U.S. Government has designated as an Iran sanctions target.
COSCO Shipping Tanker (Dalian) Co., Ltd.
On September 25, 2019, the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control added, amongst others, COSCO Dalian to the Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons list after being determined by the State Department to meet the criteria for the imposition of sanctions under Executive Order 13846. The Company had two VLCCs chartered to COSCO Dalian, the Nave Constellation (ex. Shinyo Saowalak) and the Nave Universe (ex. Shinyo Kieran), through June 18, 2025 and June 8, 2026, respectively, each at a net rate of $48,153 per day, with profit sharing above $54,388. Both charter contracts have since been terminated.
COSCO Dalian was removed from the Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons list on January 31, 2020.
EU sanctions remain in place in relation to the export of arms and military goods listed in the EU common military list, missiles-related goods and items that might be used for internal repression. The main nuclear-related EU sanctions which remain in place include restrictions on:
|•||Graphite and certain raw or semi-finished metals such as corrosion-resistant high-grade steel, iron, aluminum and alloys, titanium and alloys and nickel and alloys (as listed in Annex VIIB to EU Regulation 267/2012 as updated by EU Regulation 2015/1861 (the “EU Regulation”);|
|•||Goods listed in the Nuclear Suppliers Group list (listed in Annex I to the EU Regulation);|
|•||Goods that could contribute to nuclear-related or other activities inconsistent with the JCPOA (as listed in Annex II to the EU Regulation); and|
|•||Software designed for use in nuclear/military industries (as listed in Annex VIIA to the EU Regulation).|
The above EU sanctions activities can only be engaged if prior authorization (granted on a case-by-case basis) is obtained. The remaining restrictions apply to the sale, supply, transfer or export, directly or indirectly to any Iranian person/for use in Iran, as well as the provision of technical assistance, financing or financial assistance in relation to the restricted activity. Certain individuals and entities remain sanctioned and the prohibition to make available, directly or indirectly, economic resources or assets to or for the benefit of sanctioned parties remains. “Economic resources” is widely defined and it remains prohibited to provide vessels for a fixture from which a sanctioned party (or parties related to a sanctioned party) directly or indirectly benefits. It is therefore still necessary to carry out due diligence on the parties and cargoes involved in fixtures involving Iran.
As a result of the crisis in Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea by Russia in 2014, both the U.S. and EU have implemented sanctions against certain Russian individuals and entities.
The EU has imposed travel bans and asset freezes on certain Russian persons and entities pursuant to which it is prohibited to make available, directly or indirectly, economic resources or assets to or for the benefit of the sanctioned parties. Certain Russian ports including Kerch Commercial Seaport; Sevastopol Commercial Seaport and Port Feodosia are subject to the above restrictions. Other entities are subject to sectoral sanctions which limit the provision of equity financing and loans to the listed entities. In addition, various restrictions on trade have been implemented which, amongst others, include a prohibition on the import into the EU of goods originating in Crimea or Sevastopol as well as restrictions on trade in certain dual-use and military items and restrictions in relation to various items of technology associated with the oil industry for use in deep water exploration and production, Arctic oil exploration and production or shale oil projects in Russia. As such, it is important to carry out due diligence on the parties and cargoes involved in fixtures relating to Russia.
The United States has imposed sanctions against certain designated Russian entities and individuals (“U.S. Russian Sanctions Targets”). These sanctions block the property and all interests in property of the U.S. Russian Sanctions Targets. This effectively prohibits U.S. persons from engaging in any economic or commercial transactions with the U.S. Russian Sanctions Targets unless the same are authorized by the U.S. Treasury Department. Similar to EU sanctions, U.S. sanctions also entail restrictions on certain exports from the United States to Russia and the imposition of Sectoral Sanctions which restrict the provision of equity and debt financing to designated Russian entities. While the prohibitions of these sanctions are not directly applicable to us, we have compliance measures in place to guard against transactions with U.S. Russian Sanctions Targets which may involve the United States or U.S. persons and thus implicate prohibitions. The United States also maintains prohibitions on trade with Crimea.
The U.S. has also taken a number of steps toward implementing aspects of the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (“CAATSA”), a major piece of sanctions legislation.
Under CAATSA, the U.S. may impose secondary sanctions relating to Russia’s energy export pipelines and investments in special Russian crude oil projects. CAATSA has a provision that requires the U.S. President to sanction persons who knowingly engage in significant transactions with parties affiliated with Russia’s defense and intelligence sectors.
The U.S. sanctions with respect to Venezuela prohibit dealings with designated Venezuelan government officials, and curtail the provision of financing to Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (“PDVSA”) and other government entities, and they also prohibit U.S. persons from purchasing oil from PDVSA. Additionally, U.S. (blocking) sanctions may be imposed on any (non-U.S.) person that has materially assisted, sponsored, or provided financial, material, or technological support for, or goods or services to or in support of, or any blocked entity such as PDVSA.
EU sanctions against Venezuela are primarily governed by EU Council Regulation 2017/2063 of 13 November 2017 concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Venezuela. This includes financial sanctions and restrictions on listed persons and an, arms embargo, and related prohibitions and restrictions including restrictions related to internal repression.
US Executive Orders
The following Executive Orders govern the U.S. sanctions with respect to Venezuela:
|•||13884 - Blocking Property of the Government of Venezuela - (August 5, 2019)|
|•||13857 - Taking Additional Steps to Address the National Emergency With Respect to Venezuela (January 25, 2019)|
|•||13850 - Blocking Property of Additional Persons Contributing to the Situation in Venezuela (November 1, 2018)|
|•||13835 - Prohibiting Certain Additional Transactions with Respect to Venezuela (May 21, 2018)|
|•||13827 - Taking Additional Steps to Address the Situation in Venezuela (March 19, 2018) – prohibits all transactions related to, provision of financing for, and other dealings in, by a United States person or within the United States, in any digital currency, digital coin, or digital token, (the Petro) that was issued by, for, or on behalf of the Government of Venezuela on or after January 9, 2018.|
|•||13808 - Imposing Additional Sanctions with Respect to the Situation in Venezuela (August 24, 2017) – This executive Order prohibits transactions involving, dealings in, and the provision of financing for (by (US persons) of:|
|•||New debt with a maturity of greater than 90 days of PdVSA;|
|•||New debt with a maturity of greater than 30 days or new equity of the Government of Venezuela, other than debt of PdVSA;|
|•||Bonds issued by the Government of Venezuela prior to August 25, 2017, the EO’s effective date;|
|•||Dividend payments or other distributions of profits to the Government of Venezuela from any entity directly or indirectly owned or controlled by the Government of Venezuela; or|
|•||Direct or indirect purchase by U.S. persons or persons within the U.S. of securities from the Government of Venezuela, other than securities qualifying as new debt with a maturity of less than or equal to 90 or 30 days as covered by the EO (Section 1).|
|•||13692-Blocking Property and Suspending Entry of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Venezuela (March 8, 2015) – blocks designated Venezuelan government officials.|
Other U.S. Economic Sanctions Targets
In addition to Iran and certain Russian entities and individuals, as indicated above, the U.S. maintains comprehensive economic sanctions against Syria, Cuba, North Korea, and sanctions against entities and individuals (such as entities and individuals in the foregoing targeted countries, designated terrorists, narcotics traffickers) whose names appear on the List of SDNs and Blocked Persons maintained by the U.S. Treasury Department (collectively, the “Sanctions Targets”). We are subject to the prohibitions of these sanctions to the extent that any transaction or activity we engage in involves Sanctions Targets and a U.S. person or otherwise has a nexus to the U.S.
Other E.U. Economic Sanctions Targets
The EU also maintains sanctions against Syria, North Korea and certain other countries and against individuals listed by the EU. These restrictions apply to our operations and as such, to the extent that these countries may be involved in any business it is important to carry out checks to ensure compliance with all relevant restrictions and to carry out due diligence checks on counterparties and cargoes.
Inspection by Classification Societies
Every sea going vessel must be inspected and approved by a classification society in order to be flagged in a specific country, obtain liability insurance, and legally operate. The classification society certifies that the vessel is “in class,” signifying that the vessel has been built and maintained in accordance with the rules of the classification society and complies with applicable rules and regulations of the vessel’s country of registry and the international conventions of which that country is a member. In addition, where surveys are required by international conventions and corresponding laws and ordinances of a flag State, the classification society will often undertake them on application or by official order, acting on behalf of the authorities concerned. The classification society also undertakes, on request, other surveys and checks that are required by regulations and requirements of the flag State or port authority. These surveys are subject to agreements made in each individual case or to the regulations of the country concerned. For maintenance of the class, regular and extraordinary surveys of hull, machinery (including the electrical plant) and any special equipment classed are required to be performed subject to statutory requirements mandated by SOLAS as follows:
|•||Annual Surveys: For ocean-going ships, annual surveys are conducted for the hull and the machinery (including the electrical plant) and, where applicable, for special equipment classed, at intervals of 12 months from the date of commencement of the class period indicated in the certificate.|
|•||Intermediate Surveys: Extended annual surveys are referred to as intermediate surveys and typically are conducted two and a half years after commissioning and each class renewal. Intermediate surveys may be carried out on the occasion of the second or third annual survey.|
|•||Class Renewal Surveys: Class renewal surveys, also known as special surveys, are carried out for the ship’s hull, machinery (including the electrical plant), and for any special equipment classed, at the intervals indicated by the character of classification for the hull. At the special survey, the vessel is thoroughly examined, including audio-gauging, to determine the thickness of its steel structure. Should the thickness be found to be less than class requirements, the classification society would prescribe steel renewals. The classification society may grant a one year grace period for completion of the special survey under certain conditions. Substantial funds may have to be spent for steel renewals to pass a special survey if the vessel experiences excessive wear and tear. In lieu of the special survey every four or five years, depending on whether a grace period was granted, a shipowner has the option of arranging with the classification society for the vessel’s integrated hull or machinery to be on a continuous survey cycle, in which every part of the vessel would be surveyed within a five-year cycle.|
Risk of Loss and Liability Insurance
The operation of any cargo vessel includes risks such as mechanical failure, physical damage, collision, property loss, and cargo loss or damage and business interruption due to political circumstances in foreign countries, hostilities and labor strikes. In addition, there is always an inherent possibility of marine disaster, including oil spills and other environmental mishaps, and the liabilities arising from owning and operating vessels in international trade. The OPA, which imposes virtually unlimited liability upon owners, operators and demise charterers of any vessel trading in the United States exclusive economic zone for certain oil pollution accidents in the United States, has made liability insurance more expensive for ship owners and operators trading in the United States market. While we believe that our present insurance coverage is adequate, not all risks can be insured, and there can be no guarantee that any specific claim will be paid, or that we will always be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates.
Hull and Machinery Insurance
We have obtained marine hull and machinery and war risk insurance, which include coverage of the risk of actual or constructive total loss, for all of our owned vessels. Each of the owned vessels is covered for up to at least fair market value, with deductibles of $0.1 million per Handymax and Panamax tanker vessel and $0.25 million per VLCC tanker. We have also extended our war risk insurance to include war loss of hire for any loss of time to the vessel, including for physical repairs, caused by a warlike incident and piracy seizure for up to 270 days of detention / loss of time. There are no deductibles for the war risk insurance or the war loss of hire cover in case of piracy.
We have arranged, as necessary, increased value insurance for our vessels. With the increased value insurance, in case of total loss of the vessel, we will be able to recover the sum insured under the increased value policy in addition to the sum insured under the hull and machinery policy. Increased value insurance also covers excess liabilities that are not recoverable in full by the hull and machinery policies by reason of underinsurance.
Protection and Indemnity Insurance
Protection and indemnity insurance is expected to be provided by mutual protection and indemnity associations, or P&I Associations, who indemnify members in respect of discharging their tortious, contractual or statutory third-party legal liabilities arising from the operation of an entered ship. Such liabilities include but are not limited to third-party liability and other related expenses from injury or death of crew, passengers and other third parties, loss or damage to cargo, claims arising from collisions with other vessels, damage to other third-party property, pollution arising from oil or other substances, and salvage, towing and other related costs, including wreck removal. Protection and indemnity insurance is a form of mutual indemnity insurance, extended by protection and indemnity mutual associations and always provided in accordance with the applicable associations’ rules and members’ agreed upon terms and conditions.
Navios Acquisition’s fleet is currently entered for protection and indemnity insurance with International Group associations where, in line with all International Group Clubs, coverage for oil pollution is limited to $1.0 billion per event. The 13 P&I Associations that comprise the International Group insure approximately 95% of the world’s commercial tonnage and have entered into a pooling agreement to collectively reinsure each association’s liabilities. Each vessel that Navios Acquisition acquires will be entered with P&I Associations of the International Group. Under the International Group reinsurance program for the current policy year, each P&I club in the International Group is responsible for the first $10.0 million of every claim. In every claim the amount in excess of $10.0 million and up to $100.0 million is shared by the clubs under the pooling agreement. Any claim in excess of $100.0 million is reinsured by the International Group in the international reinsurance market under the General Excess of Loss Reinsurance Contract. This policy currently provides an additional $2.0 billion of coverage for non-oil pollution claims. Further to this, an additional reinsurance layer has been placed by the International Group for claims up to $1.0 billion in excess of $2.1 billion, i.e., $3.1 billion in total. For passengers and crew claims the overall limit is $3.0 billion for any one event with any one vessel with a sub-limit of $2.0 billion for passengers. With the exception of pollution, passenger or crew claims, should any other P&I claim exceed Group reinsurance limits, the provisions of all International Group Club’s overspill claim rules will operate and members of any International Group Club will be liable for additional contributions in accordance with such rules. To date, there has never been an overspill claim, or one even nearing this level.
As a member of a P&I Association, which is a member of the International Group, Navios Acquisition will be subject to calls payable to the associations based on the individual fleet record, the associations’ overall claim records as well as the claim records of all other members of the individual associations, and members of the pool of P&I Associations comprising the International Group. The P&I Associations’ policy year commences on February 20th. Calls are levied by means of Estimated Total Premiums (“ETP”) and the amount of the final installment of the ETP varies according to the actual total premium ultimately required by the club for a particular policy year. Members have a liability to pay supplementary calls which might be levied by the board of directors of the club if the ETP is insufficient to cover amounts paid out by the club.
Should a member leave or entry cease with any of the associations, at the club’s managers discretion, they may be also be liable to pay release calls or provide adequate security for the same amount. Such calls are levied in respect of potential outstanding club/member liabilities on open policy years and include but are not limited to liabilities for deferred calls and supplementary calls.
Not all risks are insured and not all risks are insurable. The principal insurable risks which nonetheless remain uninsured across our fleet are “loss of hire” and “strikes,” except in cases of loss of hire due to war or a piracy event or due to presence or suspected presence of contraband on board. Specifically, Navios Acquisition does not insure these risks because the costs are regarded as disproportionate. These insurances provide, subject to a deductible, a limited indemnity for hire that would not be receivable by the shipowner for reasons set forth in the policy. Should a vessel on time charter, where the vessel is paid a fixed hire day by day, suffer a serious mechanical breakdown, the daily hire will no longer be payable by the charterer. Under some circumstances, an event of force majeure may also permit the charterer to terminate the time charter or suspend payment of charter hire. The purpose of the loss of hire insurance is to secure the loss of hire during such periods. In the case of strikes insurance, if a vessel is being paid a fixed sum to perform a voyage and the ship becomes strike bound at a loading or discharging port, the insurance covers the loss of earnings during such periods.
Under Marshall Islands law, there are currently no restrictions on the export or import of capital, including foreign exchange controls or restrictions that affect the remittance of dividends, interest or other payments to non-resident holders of Navios Acquisition’s securities.
We have offices at Strathvale House, 90 N Church Street, P.O. Box 309, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104 Cayman Islands. We believe that our office facilities are suitable and adequate for our business as it is presently conducted. We presently occupy office space provided by the Manager. The Manager has agreed that it will make such office space, as well as certain office and secretarial services, available to us, as may be required by us from time to time.
Crewing and Staff
The Manager crews its vessels primarily with Greek, Filipino, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian, Indian, Bulgarian, Georgian, Ethiopian and Croatian officers and Filipino and Ethiopian seamen.
The Manager is responsible for selecting its Greek and Bulgarian officers. For other nationalities, officers and seamen are referred to us by local crewing agencies. Navios Acquisition requires that all of its seamen have the qualifications and licenses required to comply with international regulations and shipping conventions.
On May 28, 2010, Navios Acquisition entered into an Administrative Services Agreement with the Manager, pursuant to which the Manager provides certain administrative management services to Navios Acquisition which include: bookkeeping, audit and accounting services, legal and insurance services, administrative and clerical services, banking and financial services, advisory services, client and investor relations and other services. The Manager is reimbursed for reasonable costs and expenses incurred in connection with the provision of these services. In May 2014, Navios Acquisition extended the duration of its existing Administrative Services Agreement with the Manager, until May 2020.
Following the Merger with Navios Midstream, completed on December 13, 2018, the Administrative Services Agreement also covered the vessels acquired.
In August 2019, Navios Acquisition extended the duration of its existing Administrative Services Agreement with the Manager until January 1, 2025, to be automatically renewed for another five years. The agreement also provides for payment of a termination fee, equal to the fees charged for the full calendar year preceding the termination date, by Navios Acquisition in the event the Administrative Services Agreement is terminated on or before December 31, 2024.
Following the Liquidation of Navios Europe I, Navios Acquisition acquired three MR1 product tankers and two LR1 product tankers. The Administrative Services Agreement also covers the vessels acquired.
Following the Liquidation of Navios Europe II, Navios Acquisition acquired seven containerships on June 29, 2020. The Administrative Services Agreement also covers the vessels acquired.
See “Item 7B-Related Party Transactions — the Administrative Services Agreement.”
The Company is involved in various disputes and arbitration proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business. Provisions have been recognized in the financial statements for all such proceedings where the Company believes that a liability may be probable and for which the amounts are reasonably estimable, based upon facts known at the date the financial statements were prepared. We maintain insurance policies with insurers in amounts and with coverage and deductibles as our board of directors believes are reasonable and prudent. In the opinion of management, the ultimate disposition of these matters individually and in aggregate will not materially affect the Company’s financial position, results of operations or liquidity.
The table below lists the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiaries as of December 31, 2020.
Navios Maritime Acquisition
|Aegean Sea Maritime Holdings Inc.||Sub-Holding Company||Marshall Is.|
|Amorgos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.|
|Andros Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.|
|Antikithira Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Antiparos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Amindra Navigation Co.||Sub-Holding Company||Marshall Is.|
|Crete Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Folegandros Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Ikaria Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Ios Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Cayman Is.|
|Kithira Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Kos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Mytilene Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Navios Maritime Acquisition Corporation||Holding Company||Marshall Is.|
|Navios Acquisition Finance (U.S.) Inc.||Co-Issuer||Delaware|
|Rhodes Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Serifos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Shinyo Loyalty Limited||Former Vessel-Owning Company(1)||Hong Kong|
|Shinyo Navigator Limited||Former Vessel-Owning Company(2)||Hong Kong|
|Sifnos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Skiathos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Skopelos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Cayman Is.|
|Syros Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Thera Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Tinos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.|
|Oinousses Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.|
|Psara Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.|
|Antipsara Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Samothrace Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Thasos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Limnos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Skyros Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Alonnisos Shipping Corporation||Former Vessel-Owning Company(4)||Marshall Is.|
|Makronisos Shipping Corporation||Former Vessel-Owning Company(4)||Marshall Is.|
|Iraklia Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.|
|Paxos Shipping Corporation||Former Vessel-Owning Company(5)||Marshall Is.|
|Antipaxos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.|
|Donoussa Shipping Corporation||Former Vessel-Owning Company(6)||Marshall Is.|
|Schinousa Shipping Corporation||Former Vessel-Owning Company(7)||Marshall Is.|
|Navios Acquisition Europe Finance Inc||Sub-Holding Company||Marshall Is.|
|Kerkyra Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(3)||Marshall Is.|
|Lefkada Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.|
|Zakynthos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.|
|Leros Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(19)||Marshall Is.|
|Kimolos Shipping Corporation||Former Vessel-Owning Company(13)||Marshall Is.|
|Samos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.|
|Tilos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.|
|Delos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.|
|Agistri Shipping Corporation||Operating Subsidiary||Malta|
|Olivia Enterprises Corp.||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.|
|Cyrus Investments Corp.||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.|
|Doxa International Corp.||Vessel-Owning Company(10)||Marshall Is.|
|Tzia Shipping Corp.||Vessel-Owning Company(10)||Marshall Is.|
|Navios Maritime Midstream Partners GP LLC||Holding Company||Marshall Is.|
|Navios Maritime Midstream Operating LLC||Sub-Holding Company||Marshall Is.|
|Navios Maritime Midstream Partners L.P.||Sub-Holding Company||Marshall Is.|
|Navios Maritime Midstream Partners Finance (US) Inc.||Co-borrower||Delaware|
|Shinyo Kannika Limited||Former Vessel-Owning Company(9)||Hong Kong|
|Shinyo Ocean Limited||Former Vessel-Owning Company(11)||Hong Kong|
|Shinyo Saowalak Limited||Vessel-Owning Company||British Virgin Is.|
|Shinyo Kieran Limited||Vessel-Owning Company||British Virgin Is.|
|Shinyo Dream Limited||Former Vessel-Owning Company(12)||Hong Kong|
|Sikinos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(18)||Marshall Is.|
|Alkmene Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(14)||Marshall Is.|
|Persephone Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(14)||Marshall Is.|
|Rhea Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8) , (14)||Marshall Is.|
|Aphrodite Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(14)||Marshall Is.|
|Dione Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(14)||Marshall Is.|
|Bole Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(15),(22)||Marshall Is.|
|Boysenberry Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(15), (16)||Marshall Is.|
|Brandeis Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(15), (20)||Marshall Is.|
|Buff Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(15), (21)||Marshall Is.|
|Cadmium Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(15)||Marshall Is.|
|Celadon Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(15)||Marshall Is.|
|Cerulean Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(15), (17)||Marshall Is.|
|(1)||Former vessel-owner of the Shinyo Splendor which was sold to an unaffiliated third party on May 6, 2014.|
|(2)||Former vessel-owner of the Shinyo Navigator which was sold to an unaffiliated third party on December 6, 2013.|
|(3)||Navios Midstream acquired all of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the vessel-owning subsidiary on March 29, 2018.|
|(4)||Each company had the rights over a shipbuilding contract of an MR2 product tanker vessel. In February 2015, these shipbuilding contracts were terminated, with no exposure to Navios Acquisition, due to the shipyard’s inability to issue a refund guarantee.|
|(5)||Former vessel-owner of the Nave Lucida which was sold to an unaffiliated third party on January 27, 2016.|
|(6)||Former vessel-owner of the Nave Universe which was sold to an unaffiliated third party on October 4, 2016.|
|(7)||Former vessel-owner of the Nave Constellation which was sold to an unaffiliated third party on November 15, 2016.|
|(8)||Currently, vessel-operating company under a sale and leaseback transaction.|
|(9)||The vessel Shinyo Kannika was sold to an unaffiliated third party on March 22, 2018.|
|(10)||Bareboat chartered-in vessels with purchase option, expected to be delivered in each of the third quarter of 2021 and the third quarter of 2022.|
|(11)||In March 2019, the Shinyo Ocean, a 2001-built VLCC vessel of 281,395 dwt was involved in a collision incident. The Company maintains insurance coverage for such types of events (subject to applicable deductibles and other customary limitations). In May 10, 2019, Navios Acquisition sold the Shinyo Ocean, a 2001-built VLCC vessel of 281,395 dwt to an unaffiliated third party for a sale price of $12.5 million.|
|(12)||On March 25, 2019, Navios Acquisition sold the C. Dream, a 2000-built VLCC vessel of 298,570 dwt to an unaffiliated third party for a sale price of $21.8 million.|
|(13)||On October 8, 2019, Navios Acquisition sold the Nave Electron, a 2002-built VLCC vessel of 305,178 dwt to an unaffiliated third party for a sale price of $25.3 million.|
|(14)||In December 2019, Navios Acquisition acquired five product tankers, two LR1 product tankers and three MR1 product tankers following the Liquidation of Navios Europe I.|
|(15)||In June 2020, Navios Acquisition acquired seven vessel owning companies following the Liquidation of Navios Europe II.|
|(16)||In March 2021, Navios Acquisition sold the Solstice N, a 2007-built container vessel of 3,398 teu to an unaffiliated party for a sale price of $ 11.0 million.|
|(17)||In January 2021, Navios Acquisition sold the Allegro N, a 2014-built container vessel of 3,421 teu to an unaffiliated party for a sale price of $ 14.1 million.|
|(18)||In March 2021, Navios Acquisition sold the Nave Celeste, a 2003-built VLCC vessel of 298,717 dwt to an unaffiliated party for a sale price of $ 24.4 million.|
|(19)||In April 2021, Navios Acquisition agreed to sale the Nave Neutrino, a 2003-VLCC vessel of 298,287 dwt to an unaffiliated party for a sale price of $25.0 million.|
|(20)||In April 2021, Navios Acquisition agreed to sale the Ete N a 2012-built container vessel of 41,139 dwt to a related party for a sale price of $19.5 million.|
|(21)||In April 2021, Navios Acquisition agreed to sale the Fleur N a 2012-built container vessel of 41,130 dwt to a related party for a sale price of $19.5 million.|
|(22)||In April 2021, Navios Acquisition agreed to sale the Spectrum N a 2009-built container vessel of 34,333 dwt to a related party for a sale price of $16.5 million.|
Affiliates included in the financial statements accounted for under the equity method:
In the consolidated financial statements of Navios Acquisition, Navios Europe I Inc. (“Navios Europe I”) with ownership interest of 47.5% and Navios Europe II Inc. (“Navios Europe II”) with ownership interest of 47.5% are included as affiliates and are accounted for under the equity method, for such periods during which the entities were affiliates of Navios Acquisition. See Note 11 to the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included elsewhere within this Annual Report.
On November 16, 2017, in accordance with the terms of the Limited Partnership Agreement of Navios Midstream all of the 9,342,692 subordinated units of Navios Midstream converted into common units on a one-for-one basis. Following their conversion into common units, these units have the same distribution rights as all other common units.
On June 18, 2018, in accordance with the terms of the Partnership Agreement all of the issued and outstanding 1,592,920 subordinated Series A units of Navios Midstream converted into Navios Midstream’s existing common units on a one-for-one basis. Following their conversion into common units, these units have the same distribution rights as all other common units.
On December 13, 2018, Navios Acquisition completed the Merger contemplated by the previously announced Merger Agreement, dated as of October 7, 2018, by and among Navios Acquisition, Merger Sub, Navios Midstream and NAP General Partner. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub merged with and into Navios Midstream, with Navios Midstream surviving as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Navios Acquisition.
Navios Midstream was accounted for as an affiliate under the equity method up to December 13, 2018, the date of obtaining control of Navios Midstream, and is included as a 100% wholly owned subsidiary in the consolidated financial statements of Navios Acquisition thereafter. Please refer to “Note 11 of the Consolidated Financial Statements”.
Following the Liquidation of Navios Europe I in December 2019, Navios Acquisition acquired five vessel owning companies for an acquisition cost of $84.6 million in total, mainly through a bank financing of $32.5 million and $33.2 million of receivables.
Following the Liquidation of Navios Europe II on June 29, 2020, Navios Acquisition acquired seven vessel owning companies. For each of the vessels purchased from Navios Europe II, the acquisition was effected through the acquisition of all of the capital stock of the respective vessel-owning companies, which held the ownership and other contractual rights and obligations related to each of the acquired vessels, including the respective charter-out contracts. Management accounted for each acquisition as an asset acquisition under ASC 805. At the transaction date, the purchase price approximated the fair value of the assets acquired.
|D.||Property, plants and equipment|
Other than our vessels, we do not have any other material property, plants or equipment.
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
We are an owner and operator of tanker vessels focusing in the transportation of petroleum products (clean and dirty) and bulk liquid chemicals and we are incorporated in the Republic of the Marshall Islands.
On May 25, 2010, we consummated the Product and Chemical Tanker Acquisition, the acquisition of 13 vessels (11 product tankers and two chemical tankers), for an aggregate purchase price of $457.7 million, including amounts to be paid for future contracted vessels to be delivered. On September 10, 2010, we consummated the VLCC acquisition, for an aggregate purchase price of $587.0 million.
On October 9, 2013, Navios Holdings, Navios Acquisition and Navios Partners established Navios Europe I and had economic interests of 47.5%, 47.5% and 5.0%, respectively. Navios Europe I was engaged in the marine transportation industry through the ownership of five tankers and five container vessels. Effective November 2014, Navios Holdings, Navios Acquisition and Navios Partners had voting interest of 50%, 50% and 0%, respectively. On February 21, 2017, Navios Holdings agreed to transfer to Navios Partners its participation in revolving loans and term loans, both relating to Navios Europe I, for a consideration of $4.1 million in cash and 13,076,923 newly issued common units of Navios Partners.
On October 13, 2014, Navios Acquisition formed Navios Midstream under the laws of the Marshall Islands. NAP General Partner, or the general partner, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Navios Acquisition, was also formed on that date to act as the general partner of Navios Midstream and received a 2.0% general partner interest in Navios Midstream.
On February 18, 2015, Navios Holdings, Navios Acquisition and Navios Partners established Navios Europe II and had economic interests of 47.5%, 47.5% and 5.0%, respectively, and voting interests of 50%, 50% and 0%, respectively. Navios Europe II was engaged in the marine transportation industry through the ownership of seven dry bulk and seven container vessels.
On December 13, 2018, Navios Acquisition completed the Merger contemplated by the Merger Agreement, dated as of October 7, 2018, by and among Navios Acquisition, Merger Sub, Navios Midstream and NAP General Partner. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, Merger Sub merged with and into Navios Midstream, with Navios Midstream surviving as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Navios Acquisition. Following the Merger the results of operations of Navios Midstream are consolidated under Navios Acquisition.
Following the Liquidation of Navios Europe I in December 2019, Navios Acquisition acquired five vessel owning companies for a total acquisition cost of $84.6 million, mainly through a bank financing of $32.5 million and $33.2 million of receivables.
Following the Liquidation of Navios Europe II on June 29, 2020, Navios Acquisition acquired seven vessel owning companies. For each of the vessels purchased from Navios Europe II, the acquisition was effected through the acquisition of all of the capital stock of the respective vessel-owning companies, which held the ownership and other contractual rights and obligations related to each of the acquired vessels, including the respective charter-out contracts. Management accounted for each acquisition as an asset acquisition under ASC 805. At the transaction date, the purchase price approximated the fair value of the assets acquired.
Disposal of vessels
On March 25, 2019, Navios Acquisition sold the C. Dream, a 2000-built VLCC vessel of 298,570 dwt to an unaffiliated third party for a sale price of $21.8 million. The gain on sale of the vessel amounted to $ 0.7 million.
On May 10, 2019, following a collision incident, Navios Acquisition sold the Shinyo Ocean, a 2001-built VLCC vessel of 281,395 dwt to an unaffiliated third party for a sale price of $12.5 million. The gain on sale of the vessel, including the issuance claim proceeds, amounted to $2.6 million.
On October 8, 2019, Navios Acquisition sold the Nave Electron, a 2002-built VLCC vessel of 305,178 dwt to an unaffiliated third party for a sale price of $25.3 million.
On March 29, 2018, Navios Acquisition sold all the shares of the vessel-owning subsidiary of the Nave Galactic, a 2009-built VLCC vessel of 297,168 dwt to Navios Midstream for a sale price of $44.5 million, which was paid as of March 31, 2018. The gain on sale of the vessel, upon write-off of the unamortized dry-docking of $0.5 million and working capital items of $0.4 million (including costs of $0.2 million), was $0.03 million.
Navios Maritime Acquisition
|Aegean Sea Maritime Holdings Inc.||Sub-Holding Company||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Amorgos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Andros Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Antikithira Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Antiparos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Amindra Navigation Co.||Sub-Holding Company||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Crete Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Folegandros Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Ikaria Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Ios Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Cayman Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Kithira Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Kos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Mytilene Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Navios Maritime Acquisition Corporation||Holding Company||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Navios Acquisition Finance (U.S.) Inc.||Co-Issuer||Delaware||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Rhodes Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 - 12/31|
|Serifos Shipping Corporation||Vessel-Owning Company(8)||Marshall Is.||1/1 – 12/31||1/1 – 12/31|